Science Publishing Group: International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science: Table of Contents
<i> International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science (IJASS) </i> is an international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and public discussion of high quality original research covering the entire range of astronomy, astrophysics, astrophysical cosmology, planetary and space science and the astrophysical aspects of astrobiology. This includes both observational and theoretical research, the techniques of astronomical instrumentation and data analysis and astronomical space instrumentation.
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ijass Science Publishing Group: International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science: Table of Contents
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International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
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Viscous Fingering through Two Dimensional Porous Layer in Microgravity Environment
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20130101.11
Slow fluid-fluid displacement in a porous medium under the influence of real microgravity field is going to reveal important fluid physics associated with hydrology, chemical engineering and the physics of disordered media. Most systems of practical importance include fluids of different densities. Therefore it is important to study the effect of gravity on the front/displacement-structure (fingering: due to the nonlinear interactions among viscous, capillary and gravitational forces). CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis glycerin/water mixture through two dimensional single layer aniso-tropic artificial porous layer have been performed in ground level condition as well as microgravity modifying the body force source term in the momentum equation through UDF(user defined functions) written in C. Ground level experiment to capture fingering has also been performed to validate the CFD results. Fingering structures in the microgravity and g-jitter conditions have been predicted using the validated CFD model.
Slow fluid-fluid displacement in a porous medium under the influence of real microgravity field is going to reveal important fluid physics associated with hydrology, chemical engineering and the physics of disordered media. Most systems of practical importance include fluids of different densities. Therefore it is important to study the effect of gravity on the front/displacement-structure (fingering: due to the nonlinear interactions among viscous, capillary and gravitational forces). CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis glycerin/water mixture through two dimensional single layer aniso-tropic artificial porous layer have been performed in ground level condition as well as microgravity modifying the body force source term in the momentum equation through UDF(user defined functions) written in C. Ground level experiment to capture fingering has also been performed to validate the CFD results. Fingering structures in the microgravity and g-jitter conditions have been predicted using the validated CFD model.
Viscous Fingering through Two Dimensional Porous Layer in Microgravity Environment
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130101.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Raisul Hasan
Pradyumna Ghosh
R. S. Singh
Viscous Fingering through Two Dimensional Porous Layer in Microgravity Environment
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Study of Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Meteorites in Libya
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This paper deals with elemental composition analysis of a meteorite sample which was discovered in eastern Libya in Mlodh area at (39.97 0 N) and (7.90 0 E) coordinates. Comparisons between elemental concentrations in the meteorite sample and terrestrial rock sample were made. Results showed that the concentrations of elements in the terrestrial rock sample were much higher than the concentrations found in the meteorite sample. Determining the type of meteorite sample remains an extremely difficult matter due to many factors, explanations on these factors are discussed.
This paper deals with elemental composition analysis of a meteorite sample which was discovered in eastern Libya in Mlodh area at (39.97 0 N) and (7.90 0 E) coordinates. Comparisons between elemental concentrations in the meteorite sample and terrestrial rock sample were made. Results showed that the concentrations of elements in the terrestrial rock sample were much higher than the concentrations found in the meteorite sample. Determining the type of meteorite sample remains an extremely difficult matter due to many factors, explanations on these factors are discussed.
Study of Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Meteorites in Libya
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130102.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Samir Ahmed Hamouda
Fatima Melad Alshareeif
Study of Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Meteorites in Libya
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© Science Publishing Group
Near-Earth Space as a Habitat
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The article analyzes the near-Earth space as a future habitat for humankind. This article investigates the factors affecting the location in this environment. We estimate the boundaries of space and related space. The article highlights the main features of the near-Earth space as a human-friendly environment.
The article analyzes the near-Earth space as a future habitat for humankind. This article investigates the factors affecting the location in this environment. We estimate the boundaries of space and related space. The article highlights the main features of the near-Earth space as a human-friendly environment.
Near-Earth Space as a Habitat
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130103.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
David Waring Dunham
Vladimir Petrovich Kulagin
Victor Yakovlevich Tsvetkov
Near-Earth Space as a Habitat
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Change in Internal Energy & Enthalpy of the Black Holes
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The present paper derives an expression for the change in internal energy and enthalpy of the black holes using first law of thermodynamics and showing that the change in internal energy and enthalpy are the manifestations of same thing at constant pressure and volume. The paper also shows that the spinning black holes with spin a*→1 do not radiate energy and mass of the black hole becomes infinity for zero surface gravity.
The present paper derives an expression for the change in internal energy and enthalpy of the black holes using first law of thermodynamics and showing that the change in internal energy and enthalpy are the manifestations of same thing at constant pressure and volume. The paper also shows that the spinning black holes with spin a*→1 do not radiate energy and mass of the black hole becomes infinity for zero surface gravity.
Change in Internal Energy & Enthalpy of the Black Holes
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dipo Mahto
Amresh Kumar Singh
Mahendra Ram
Kumari Vineeta
Change in Internal Energy & Enthalpy of the Black Holes
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© Science Publishing Group
Siva’s Equation for Singularity of Black Holes
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Classical equation for space time and matter gives the relation between a mass and the space time surrounded by its space time fluid. Mass of the basic building block of matter creation has been termed as ‘K-Suryon’. Mass of ‘K-Suryon’ has been calculated as 1.15x10-64 kgs. The density of its space time fluid is calculated as 3.32x10626 Kg/cum. Thus ‘K-Suryon’ is the most elementary mass that can exist in this universe. We know the minimum mass of anybody to become black hole is ‘Chandrasekhar’s Limit’ .For that mass we can calculate the space time fluid density. So we can find the density of space time fluid associated with it. With these calculations we have concluded that the physical singularity will not be there for a black hole. A physical singularity will exist below a critical density equal to K-Suryon where space time will not exist. It is concluded that velocity of light is reducing and space time fluid density of universe is increasing with the age of Universe. Experimental verification may be possible.
Classical equation for space time and matter gives the relation between a mass and the space time surrounded by its space time fluid. Mass of the basic building block of matter creation has been termed as ‘K-Suryon’. Mass of ‘K-Suryon’ has been calculated as 1.15x10-64 kgs. The density of its space time fluid is calculated as 3.32x10626 Kg/cum. Thus ‘K-Suryon’ is the most elementary mass that can exist in this universe. We know the minimum mass of anybody to become black hole is ‘Chandrasekhar’s Limit’ .For that mass we can calculate the space time fluid density. So we can find the density of space time fluid associated with it. With these calculations we have concluded that the physical singularity will not be there for a black hole. A physical singularity will exist below a critical density equal to K-Suryon where space time will not exist. It is concluded that velocity of light is reducing and space time fluid density of universe is increasing with the age of Universe. Experimental verification may be possible.
Siva’s Equation for Singularity of Black Holes
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Siva Prasad Kodukula
Siva’s Equation for Singularity of Black Holes
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Statistical Analysis of Associated and Non-Associated Type II Solar Radio Bursts during the Increasing Phase of Solar Cycle 23
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Type II and Type III bursts are probably the most intensively studied form of radio emission in all of astrophysics. Immense effort has gone into the elucidation of both the observational and theoretical aspects. The bursts have captured the attention of plasma theorists because a considerable body of information exists on the plasma parameters and because there is adequate space and time in the solar corona for the evolution of various particle and wave processes. In our work, we have studied the type II bursts and their association with type III bursts during the increasing phase approaching the peak phase of solar cycle 23. For the period 2000-2001, type III bursts data of Culgoora observatory is referred. The parameters such as duration drift rate, shock speed, band width of these associated/non associated bursts are compared .Results indicate that the above parameters almost remain uniform for associated and non-associated type II bursts.
Type II and Type III bursts are probably the most intensively studied form of radio emission in all of astrophysics. Immense effort has gone into the elucidation of both the observational and theoretical aspects. The bursts have captured the attention of plasma theorists because a considerable body of information exists on the plasma parameters and because there is adequate space and time in the solar corona for the evolution of various particle and wave processes. In our work, we have studied the type II bursts and their association with type III bursts during the increasing phase approaching the peak phase of solar cycle 23. For the period 2000-2001, type III bursts data of Culgoora observatory is referred. The parameters such as duration drift rate, shock speed, band width of these associated/non associated bursts are compared .Results indicate that the above parameters almost remain uniform for associated and non-associated type II bursts.
Statistical Analysis of Associated and Non-Associated Type II Solar Radio Bursts during the Increasing Phase of Solar Cycle 23
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.14
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Vijaykumar H. Doddamani
Raveesha K. H.
K. R. Subramanian
Statistical Analysis of Associated and Non-Associated Type II Solar Radio Bursts during the Increasing Phase of Solar Cycle 23
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© Science Publishing Group
New Interpretation for Libyan Desert Glass Formation
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.13
Ever since the discovery of Libyan Desert Glass in the southwest corner of the Great Sand Sea near the Libyan border, its source of formation has become the subject of controversy that still has not been resolve. This paper introduces a general description of Libyan Desert Glass. It presents briefly different theories explaining its formation. This paper introduces also new interpretation for Libyan Desert Glass formation. This interpretation suggests a meteorite impact mechanism. In this paper, the study of meteorite impact mechanism of BP and Oasis craters was carried out for the first time using a simple model. Calculations have shown that change in temperature for the target materials (sand) because of meteorite impact could explain the formation mechanism of Libyan Desert Glass that took place about 29 million years ago.
Ever since the discovery of Libyan Desert Glass in the southwest corner of the Great Sand Sea near the Libyan border, its source of formation has become the subject of controversy that still has not been resolve. This paper introduces a general description of Libyan Desert Glass. It presents briefly different theories explaining its formation. This paper introduces also new interpretation for Libyan Desert Glass formation. This interpretation suggests a meteorite impact mechanism. In this paper, the study of meteorite impact mechanism of BP and Oasis craters was carried out for the first time using a simple model. Calculations have shown that change in temperature for the target materials (sand) because of meteorite impact could explain the formation mechanism of Libyan Desert Glass that took place about 29 million years ago.
New Interpretation for Libyan Desert Glass Formation
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.13
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Samir Ahmed Hamouda
Fatma Milad Elsharif
New Interpretation for Libyan Desert Glass Formation
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© Science Publishing Group
Frequency of Hawking Radiation of Black Holes
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In the present research work, we calculate the frequencies of Hawking radiations emitted from different test black holes existing in X-ray binaries (XRBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) by utilizing the proposed formula for the frequency of Hawking radiation f=8.037x1033kg/M(HZ)and show that these frequencies of Hawking radiations may be the components of electromagnetic spectrum and gravitational waves. We also extend this work to convert the frequency of Hawking radiation in terms of the mass of the sun (Mo)and then of Chandrasekhar limit (Mch), which is the largest unit of mass.
In the present research work, we calculate the frequencies of Hawking radiations emitted from different test black holes existing in X-ray binaries (XRBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) by utilizing the proposed formula for the frequency of Hawking radiation f=8.037x1033kg/M(HZ)and show that these frequencies of Hawking radiations may be the components of electromagnetic spectrum and gravitational waves. We also extend this work to convert the frequency of Hawking radiation in terms of the mass of the sun (Mo)and then of Chandrasekhar limit (Mch), which is the largest unit of mass.
Frequency of Hawking Radiation of Black Holes
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.15
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dipo Mahto
Brajesh Kumar Jha
Krishna Murari Singh
Kamala Parhi
Frequency of Hawking Radiation of Black Holes
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10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.15
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© Science Publishing Group
Radiative Efficiency of Black Holes in AGN
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Neeraj Pant et al.(2010) gave a detailed study of BCT First solution (Tewari,1988) representing time dependent balls of perfect fluid with matter-radiation in general relativity to assume the life time of quasar 107 years, initial mass≈108M with an initial linear dimension≈1015 cm are radiating energy at a constant rate i.e. L∞=1047 ergs/sec with the gravitational red shift, z=0.44637. For quasars with LQSO~1046erg/sec, the black hole masses in those systems must be at least 108 solar masses (Astro 3830: Spring 2004). In the present work, we have calculated the radiative efficiency of black holes existing in AGN by using the formula L/Mc2 (Narayan2005, Xie & Yuan 2012) and compared our results regarding some characteristics of super massive black holes with some other works given in references like Astro 3830:Spring (2004), Narayan (2005), Xie & Yuan (2012) and Chan (2013) and concluded that the mass of black holes never be greater than 5×109 M⊙ as well as the radiative efficiency of black hole is smaller than the same mass of quasars.
Neeraj Pant et al.(2010) gave a detailed study of BCT First solution (Tewari,1988) representing time dependent balls of perfect fluid with matter-radiation in general relativity to assume the life time of quasar 107 years, initial mass≈108M with an initial linear dimension≈1015 cm are radiating energy at a constant rate i.e. L∞=1047 ergs/sec with the gravitational red shift, z=0.44637. For quasars with LQSO~1046erg/sec, the black hole masses in those systems must be at least 108 solar masses (Astro 3830: Spring 2004). In the present work, we have calculated the radiative efficiency of black holes existing in AGN by using the formula L/Mc2 (Narayan2005, Xie & Yuan 2012) and compared our results regarding some characteristics of super massive black holes with some other works given in references like Astro 3830:Spring (2004), Narayan (2005), Xie & Yuan (2012) and Chan (2013) and concluded that the mass of black holes never be greater than 5×109 M⊙ as well as the radiative efficiency of black hole is smaller than the same mass of quasars.
Radiative Efficiency of Black Holes in AGN
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.16
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dipo Mahto
Rama Nand Mehta
Umakant Prasad
Raj Kumar Sah
Krishna Murari Singh
Radiative Efficiency of Black Holes in AGN
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© Science Publishing Group
Study of Variation of Gravitational Constant (G) in the Very Strong Gravitational Field
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In the present work, we have derived the formula for the variation of the gravitational constant given by G’=G/(1-v2/c2)-2 in very strong gravitational field of the compact bodies like super massive black holes and neutron stars applying special relativity and Newton’s law of gravitation for two bodies where v be the velocity of spinning compact bodies like black holes, neutron stars etc. and c be the velocity of light and calculated the variability of the gravitational constant (G) at different speed of the spinning of the black holes, neutron stars and quasars to show the speed is also factor governing the force of gravity addition to the mass.
In the present work, we have derived the formula for the variation of the gravitational constant given by G’=G/(1-v2/c2)-2 in very strong gravitational field of the compact bodies like super massive black holes and neutron stars applying special relativity and Newton’s law of gravitation for two bodies where v be the velocity of spinning compact bodies like black holes, neutron stars etc. and c be the velocity of light and calculated the variability of the gravitational constant (G) at different speed of the spinning of the black holes, neutron stars and quasars to show the speed is also factor governing the force of gravity addition to the mass.
Study of Variation of Gravitational Constant (G) in the Very Strong Gravitational Field
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.17
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dipo Mahto
Md Shams Nadeem
Umakant Prasad
Kumari Vineeta
Study of Variation of Gravitational Constant (G) in the Very Strong Gravitational Field
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Study of Variation of Temperature of Black Holes with Respect to Mass in XRBs
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In the present paper, we have derived an expression for the variation of temperature of the black holes with respect to mass using the temperature of black hole at which the black hole radiates to infinity all species of particles with a perfect black body spectrum and surface gravity for Schwarzschild black holes. We have also calculated their values of different test black holes existing only in X-ray binaries.
In the present paper, we have derived an expression for the variation of temperature of the black holes with respect to mass using the temperature of black hole at which the black hole radiates to infinity all species of particles with a perfect black body spectrum and surface gravity for Schwarzschild black holes. We have also calculated their values of different test black holes existing only in X-ray binaries.
Study of Variation of Temperature of Black Holes with Respect to Mass in XRBs
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.18
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Rama Nand Mehta
Umakant Prasad
Ashok Kumar
Dipo Mahto
Study of Variation of Temperature of Black Holes with Respect to Mass in XRBs
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10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.18
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© Science Publishing Group
Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand for Teleoperation & Telepresence in Space & Hazardous Environments
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The research presented in this article aimed at achieving an innovative anthropomorphic robotic arm with intelligent sensory feedback, which is remotely controlled by a human operator, using a control-glove. The movements of the human operators hand will be exactly reproduced by the manipulation robotic hand, which also provides feedback regarding the pressure confronted with and 3D visual information of the manipulation area. This will enable the possibility of complex and high precision manipulation in unfriendly and hazardous environments, without exposing the human operator to risks. Teleoperation will be carried out by means of a Multi-sensory control glove (MSG), which will enable high-precision tasks performing with almost no preliminary training required for the operator (the robotic hand having all five articulated and driven fingers and allowing human-like complex maneuvers). The MSG is equipped with position movement and acceleration sensors, and also a system for transmitting the haptic feedback to the operator, which is the first component of the tele-presence implemented in the robotic system. The second component is 3D visual feedback from the operation site, using a stereoscopic HD camera mounted on the robot platform and a 3D vision helmet, with glasses containing two OLED displays for the operator. Using this kind of robotic system, the human operator can act efficiently from inside safe environment, only the robotic hand and it's mobile platform (or supporting arm) being exposed to hazardous conditions. The applications of this robotic hand could include the following domains: space exploration and working (remote operations on void space or on other planets' surface driven from human-safe environment), working in toxic atmosphere (chemically poisoned or toxic gas emanation sites); working in high radiation-level environments (like nuclear plants); working in marine applications (deep ocean exploration, repair of offshore oil platforms etc.) etc.
The research presented in this article aimed at achieving an innovative anthropomorphic robotic arm with intelligent sensory feedback, which is remotely controlled by a human operator, using a control-glove. The movements of the human operators hand will be exactly reproduced by the manipulation robotic hand, which also provides feedback regarding the pressure confronted with and 3D visual information of the manipulation area. This will enable the possibility of complex and high precision manipulation in unfriendly and hazardous environments, without exposing the human operator to risks. Teleoperation will be carried out by means of a Multi-sensory control glove (MSG), which will enable high-precision tasks performing with almost no preliminary training required for the operator (the robotic hand having all five articulated and driven fingers and allowing human-like complex maneuvers). The MSG is equipped with position movement and acceleration sensors, and also a system for transmitting the haptic feedback to the operator, which is the first component of the tele-presence implemented in the robotic system. The second component is 3D visual feedback from the operation site, using a stereoscopic HD camera mounted on the robot platform and a 3D vision helmet, with glasses containing two OLED displays for the operator. Using this kind of robotic system, the human operator can act efficiently from inside safe environment, only the robotic hand and it's mobile platform (or supporting arm) being exposed to hazardous conditions. The applications of this robotic hand could include the following domains: space exploration and working (remote operations on void space or on other planets' surface driven from human-safe environment), working in toxic atmosphere (chemically poisoned or toxic gas emanation sites); working in high radiation-level environments (like nuclear plants); working in marine applications (deep ocean exploration, repair of offshore oil platforms etc.) etc.
Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand for Teleoperation & Telepresence in Space & Hazardous Environments
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20130105.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Mihail Teodorescu
Lucian Milea
Monica Dascalu
Dan Coroama
Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand for Teleoperation & Telepresence in Space & Hazardous Environments
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© Science Publishing Group
Stereo Vision-Based Relative Navigation Algorithm for Satellites Formation Flying
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140201.11
Space mission with multiple spacecraft formation is an important means to space operation. A new relative navigation algorithm based on stereo vision is developed aiming at high navigation precision requirement of spacecraft formation flying. It uses stereo vision camera attached on the tracking craft as measurement sensor, gets the relative location of target craft in the tracking craft body reference frame with imaging parallax. Relative motion equation is built in inertial frame, and discretized as the state equation of the system. Measurement information of stereo vision is used as measurement value, and the two-step filter relative navigation algorithm based on Kalman filter is designed to estimate relative navigation state in real time, and finally validated by simulation. The simulation results prove this algorithm can meet the relative navigation precision requirements of formation flying.
Space mission with multiple spacecraft formation is an important means to space operation. A new relative navigation algorithm based on stereo vision is developed aiming at high navigation precision requirement of spacecraft formation flying. It uses stereo vision camera attached on the tracking craft as measurement sensor, gets the relative location of target craft in the tracking craft body reference frame with imaging parallax. Relative motion equation is built in inertial frame, and discretized as the state equation of the system. Measurement information of stereo vision is used as measurement value, and the two-step filter relative navigation algorithm based on Kalman filter is designed to estimate relative navigation state in real time, and finally validated by simulation. The simulation results prove this algorithm can meet the relative navigation precision requirements of formation flying.
Stereo Vision-Based Relative Navigation Algorithm for Satellites Formation Flying
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140201.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Xiaokui Yue
Haifeng Su
Jianping Yuan
Stereo Vision-Based Relative Navigation Algorithm for Satellites Formation Flying
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© Science Publishing Group
Paradoxes of the Theory of Gravity
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Showing the contradictions in the physics calculations using the equations of the classical theory of gravitation. Alternatively, investigate the physical properties of space objects on the basis of the theory of vortex gravitation, cosmology and cosmogony. The obtained results allow us to evaluate and compare the above objective, physical theories.
Showing the contradictions in the physics calculations using the equations of the classical theory of gravitation. Alternatively, investigate the physical properties of space objects on the basis of the theory of vortex gravitation, cosmology and cosmogony. The obtained results allow us to evaluate and compare the above objective, physical theories.
Paradoxes of the Theory of Gravity
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140201.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Sergey Orlov
Paradoxes of the Theory of Gravity
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140201.12
© Science Publishing Group
Asymptotically Safe Pure Gravity as the Source of Dark Energy of the Vacuum
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140201.13
Dark energy can be understood in terms of the asymptotic safety of pure gravity. The present short paper shows how pure gravity, quantum mechanics and fractal spacetime are different aspects of the same reality. Results and conclusions are subsequently reinforced and partially reproduced using different theories related to phase transition, Unruh temperature and ‘t Hooft renormalization.
Dark energy can be understood in terms of the asymptotic safety of pure gravity. The present short paper shows how pure gravity, quantum mechanics and fractal spacetime are different aspects of the same reality. Results and conclusions are subsequently reinforced and partially reproduced using different theories related to phase transition, Unruh temperature and ‘t Hooft renormalization.
Asymptotically Safe Pure Gravity as the Source of Dark Energy of the Vacuum
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140201.13
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-04-08
© Science Publishing Group
Mohamed S. E. Naschie
Asymptotically Safe Pure Gravity as the Source of Dark Energy of the Vacuum
2
1
15
15
2014-04-08
2014-04-08
10.11648/j.ijass.20140201.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140201.13
© Science Publishing Group
Statistical Study of Neutron Star Glitches
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140202.11
Neutron star glitches; spanning a period of 42 years of pulsar timing were studied. These glitches are from Radio, X-ray, Anomalous X-ray and Milliseconds Pulsars. Radio Pulsars dominates the glitch events, contributing 87% of the glitches. Pulsars of characteristic age bracket 103 to 105 yrs dominated the glitch events, at a rate of 5.2 glitches per year per pulsar. Pulsar of the above age bracket exhibits large size glitches compared to others. A large frequency spin-up (△v) is generally associated with large frequency derivative jump (△v ̇). The distribution of the glitch magnitude (△v/v) is bimodal reaffirming dual glitch mechanism, but that of spin-up (△v) is tending towards multi-modal. Moreover, glitches in Vela pulsar and PSR J0537-6910 showed strong elasticity of the objects, suggesting that the interiors of these objects are in thermal equilibrium. Glitches from PSR J1740-3015 and PSR J1341-6220 appeared to occur in groups, suggesting that their interior fluid is switching between two phases. We discussed the glitch activity of young pulsars in terms of vortex creep model.
Neutron star glitches; spanning a period of 42 years of pulsar timing were studied. These glitches are from Radio, X-ray, Anomalous X-ray and Milliseconds Pulsars. Radio Pulsars dominates the glitch events, contributing 87% of the glitches. Pulsars of characteristic age bracket 103 to 105 yrs dominated the glitch events, at a rate of 5.2 glitches per year per pulsar. Pulsar of the above age bracket exhibits large size glitches compared to others. A large frequency spin-up (△v) is generally associated with large frequency derivative jump (△v ̇). The distribution of the glitch magnitude (△v/v) is bimodal reaffirming dual glitch mechanism, but that of spin-up (△v) is tending towards multi-modal. Moreover, glitches in Vela pulsar and PSR J0537-6910 showed strong elasticity of the objects, suggesting that the interiors of these objects are in thermal equilibrium. Glitches from PSR J1740-3015 and PSR J1341-6220 appeared to occur in groups, suggesting that their interior fluid is switching between two phases. We discussed the glitch activity of young pulsars in terms of vortex creep model.
Statistical Study of Neutron Star Glitches
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140202.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-05-13
© Science Publishing Group
Eya, Innocent Okwudili
Urama, Johnson O.
Statistical Study of Neutron Star Glitches
2
2
21
21
2014-05-13
2014-05-13
10.11648/j.ijass.20140202.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140202.11
© Science Publishing Group
Dynamical Essence of the Basic Relations of the Special Theory of Relativity and the Origin of Fundamental Interactions: Phenomenology
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140202.12
It is shown that the adoption of the hypothesis that the electromagnetic component of physical vacuum, the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics (QED vacuum), undergoes polarization in the vicinity of elementary particles allows us to comprehend, on the phenomenological level, the physical essence of the basic hypotheses of the special theory of relativity, including the nature of the limitation of the velocity of material objects to the velocity of light in vacuum. The QED vacuum here plays the part of the base medium that governs the development of the fundamental strong and gravitational interactions.
It is shown that the adoption of the hypothesis that the electromagnetic component of physical vacuum, the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics (QED vacuum), undergoes polarization in the vicinity of elementary particles allows us to comprehend, on the phenomenological level, the physical essence of the basic hypotheses of the special theory of relativity, including the nature of the limitation of the velocity of material objects to the velocity of light in vacuum. The QED vacuum here plays the part of the base medium that governs the development of the fundamental strong and gravitational interactions.
Dynamical Essence of the Basic Relations of the Special Theory of Relativity and the Origin of Fundamental Interactions: Phenomenology
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140202.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-06-30
© Science Publishing Group
Timashev Serge
Dynamical Essence of the Basic Relations of the Special Theory of Relativity and the Origin of Fundamental Interactions: Phenomenology
2
2
32
32
2014-06-30
2014-06-30
10.11648/j.ijass.20140202.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140202.12
© Science Publishing Group
Planckian Energy-Mass Source and the Dynamics of the Universe: Phenomenology
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140203.11
A phenomenological model of the dynamics of the Universe is suggested as an alternative of the standard model dynamics whose inadequacy is borne out by the catastrophic difference – over 40 orders of magnitude – between the cosmological constant obtained on the basis of the standard cosmological model and that derived from experimental data. The key factor in the solution of the complex of problems unresolvable within the scope of the standard theory, the problems associated with the establishment of the essence of dark energy and dark matter included, is the abandonment of the notions of the Big Bang involving the momentary generation of matter and adoption of the hypothesis for the existence of an energy-mass source of Planckian power that originated at the instant the Big Bang took place, the energy of this source being constantly generated in and evenly distributed over every element of the already originated or originating space. Possible experimental investigations aimed at gaining an insight into the issues concerning the dynamics of the Universe are discussed.
A phenomenological model of the dynamics of the Universe is suggested as an alternative of the standard model dynamics whose inadequacy is borne out by the catastrophic difference – over 40 orders of magnitude – between the cosmological constant obtained on the basis of the standard cosmological model and that derived from experimental data. The key factor in the solution of the complex of problems unresolvable within the scope of the standard theory, the problems associated with the establishment of the essence of dark energy and dark matter included, is the abandonment of the notions of the Big Bang involving the momentary generation of matter and adoption of the hypothesis for the existence of an energy-mass source of Planckian power that originated at the instant the Big Bang took place, the energy of this source being constantly generated in and evenly distributed over every element of the already originated or originating space. Possible experimental investigations aimed at gaining an insight into the issues concerning the dynamics of the Universe are discussed.
Planckian Energy-Mass Source and the Dynamics of the Universe: Phenomenology
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140203.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-06-30
© Science Publishing Group
Timashev Serge
Planckian Energy-Mass Source and the Dynamics of the Universe: Phenomenology
2
3
45
45
2014-06-30
2014-06-30
10.11648/j.ijass.20140203.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140203.11
© Science Publishing Group
Well Behaved Charge Analogues of Wyman-Adler Exact Solution for a Self-Bound Star
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140203.12
The exact analytical Wyman-Adler’s relativistic solution describing the interior of a charged spherical strange star candidate is found under the assumption and existence of two parameters K and m. The interior self-bound star matter, pressure, energy density and the adiabatic sound speed are represented in terms of simple algebraic function. The analytic solution depicts a unique static charged configuration of quark matter with radius R~9 km and total mass M~2.5M¬¬⊙. And try to investigate the velocity of sound approximately 1/√3 which is similar to the attitude of SQM (Strange Quark matter). Based on analytic model in the recent work, the applicable values of physical quantities have been calculated by accepting the estimated masses and radii of some well-known strange star candidates like PSR J1903+327, Her X-1, Cen X-3, EXO 1785-248. The equation of state of the charge matter distribution may play a major role in the study of the interior structure of highly compact charge stellar object in astrophysical study.
The exact analytical Wyman-Adler’s relativistic solution describing the interior of a charged spherical strange star candidate is found under the assumption and existence of two parameters K and m. The interior self-bound star matter, pressure, energy density and the adiabatic sound speed are represented in terms of simple algebraic function. The analytic solution depicts a unique static charged configuration of quark matter with radius R~9 km and total mass M~2.5M¬¬⊙. And try to investigate the velocity of sound approximately 1/√3 which is similar to the attitude of SQM (Strange Quark matter). Based on analytic model in the recent work, the applicable values of physical quantities have been calculated by accepting the estimated masses and radii of some well-known strange star candidates like PSR J1903+327, Her X-1, Cen X-3, EXO 1785-248. The equation of state of the charge matter distribution may play a major role in the study of the interior structure of highly compact charge stellar object in astrophysical study.
Well Behaved Charge Analogues of Wyman-Adler Exact Solution for a Self-Bound Star
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140203.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-08-17
© Science Publishing Group
A. H. M. Mahbubur Rahman
M. Rubayet Rahman
A. S. M. Mohiul Islam
Well Behaved Charge Analogues of Wyman-Adler Exact Solution for a Self-Bound Star
2
3
55
55
2014-08-17
2014-08-17
10.11648/j.ijass.20140203.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140203.12
© Science Publishing Group
Design and Construction of a Refracting Telescope
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140204.11
Most people see the telescope as the things for the movies, the science geeks and the rich and affluent, but are these feelings for real? This paper on the design and construction of an optical refracting telescope which is aimed at producing a low cost and portable telescope with less or no aberration effects using the materials we see around us every day goes a long way to answer the question that the telescope is for everybody that loves astronomy. Overall implementation of this work involves knowledge of the physics of optics; lenses to be precise. As a case study I used a double convex lens and the eyepiece of a microscope for the construction of the mini refractor telescope, my hypothesis is that using a double convex is better than using a Plano-convex because the two curved surfaces will cancel out the aberration effect of the individual sides. The resultant telescope was tested during the night and during the day and was used to focus objects at a distance of about 50m from the person with less aberration effect.
Most people see the telescope as the things for the movies, the science geeks and the rich and affluent, but are these feelings for real? This paper on the design and construction of an optical refracting telescope which is aimed at producing a low cost and portable telescope with less or no aberration effects using the materials we see around us every day goes a long way to answer the question that the telescope is for everybody that loves astronomy. Overall implementation of this work involves knowledge of the physics of optics; lenses to be precise. As a case study I used a double convex lens and the eyepiece of a microscope for the construction of the mini refractor telescope, my hypothesis is that using a double convex is better than using a Plano-convex because the two curved surfaces will cancel out the aberration effect of the individual sides. The resultant telescope was tested during the night and during the day and was used to focus objects at a distance of about 50m from the person with less aberration effect.
Design and Construction of a Refracting Telescope
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140204.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-08-19
© Science Publishing Group
C. I. Onah
C. M. Ogudo
Design and Construction of a Refracting Telescope
2
4
65
65
2014-08-19
2014-08-19
10.11648/j.ijass.20140204.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140204.11
© Science Publishing Group
Universe: Not Expanding
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140204.12
Contrary to the widespread belief, the Universe is neither expanding nor contracting. What is taking place is the orbit dilation of the galaxies. The orbit dilation is a phenomenon that results from the mass creation due to energy to mass conversion occurring in galaxies. The absence of Universe expansion indicates that the origin of the Universe cannot be traced back in time to a hypothetical Big-Bang. The Orbit Dilation Theorem and the Orbit Acceleration Theorem that describe the mechanics of orbit dilation are derived under the axiom that the mass of a galaxy or a planet is time varying and never remains a constant. These theorems are then used to demonstrate how and why galaxies are moving away always at an accelerated rate. There is absolutely no space expansion hypothesis required for determining why the distance galaxies are moving away at an accelerated rate. The galactic and planetary orbits are dynamic and are always either dilating or contracting in accordance with the rate of change of the logarithmic mass, while orbit acceleration takes place in proportion to the second derivative of the mass with respect to time per unit mass; the galactic and planetary orbits never remain static. It is also shown that as a result of orbit dilation and orbit contraction, galaxies may occasionally come into collision course with each other; however, a singular cohesive collision of the galaxies leading to a Big-Bang is improbable because it is highly unlikely that the assumption required would be supported in the nature. Hubble’s velocity-distance relationship is obtained as a possible, but quite improbable special case of the Orbit Dilation Theorem; it is improbable because the assumption, the rate of change of logarithmic mass is a constant, that had to be made cannot be expected to satisfy in nature. The acceleration of a galaxy in Hubble relationship is the square of the Hubble Constant times the distance to the galaxy. The Orbit Dilation Theorem and the Orbit Acceleration Theorem are also used to analyze the behavior of the solar system. The orbit contraction is prevalent in planetary systems as a result of mass loss due to mass to energy conversion, especially due to radiation and non-renewable resource depletion. The earth’s orbit contraction leads to global warming, as well as, to the gradual shortening of the year. It is possible to counter balance the orbit contraction and resulting global warming by limiting the depletion of non-renewable resources, as well as by protecting and sustaining the mass creation or the energy to mass conversion that is naturally taking place in the bio-mass.
Contrary to the widespread belief, the Universe is neither expanding nor contracting. What is taking place is the orbit dilation of the galaxies. The orbit dilation is a phenomenon that results from the mass creation due to energy to mass conversion occurring in galaxies. The absence of Universe expansion indicates that the origin of the Universe cannot be traced back in time to a hypothetical Big-Bang. The Orbit Dilation Theorem and the Orbit Acceleration Theorem that describe the mechanics of orbit dilation are derived under the axiom that the mass of a galaxy or a planet is time varying and never remains a constant. These theorems are then used to demonstrate how and why galaxies are moving away always at an accelerated rate. There is absolutely no space expansion hypothesis required for determining why the distance galaxies are moving away at an accelerated rate. The galactic and planetary orbits are dynamic and are always either dilating or contracting in accordance with the rate of change of the logarithmic mass, while orbit acceleration takes place in proportion to the second derivative of the mass with respect to time per unit mass; the galactic and planetary orbits never remain static. It is also shown that as a result of orbit dilation and orbit contraction, galaxies may occasionally come into collision course with each other; however, a singular cohesive collision of the galaxies leading to a Big-Bang is improbable because it is highly unlikely that the assumption required would be supported in the nature. Hubble’s velocity-distance relationship is obtained as a possible, but quite improbable special case of the Orbit Dilation Theorem; it is improbable because the assumption, the rate of change of logarithmic mass is a constant, that had to be made cannot be expected to satisfy in nature. The acceleration of a galaxy in Hubble relationship is the square of the Hubble Constant times the distance to the galaxy. The Orbit Dilation Theorem and the Orbit Acceleration Theorem are also used to analyze the behavior of the solar system. The orbit contraction is prevalent in planetary systems as a result of mass loss due to mass to energy conversion, especially due to radiation and non-renewable resource depletion. The earth’s orbit contraction leads to global warming, as well as, to the gradual shortening of the year. It is possible to counter balance the orbit contraction and resulting global warming by limiting the depletion of non-renewable resources, as well as by protecting and sustaining the mass creation or the energy to mass conversion that is naturally taking place in the bio-mass.
Universe: Not Expanding
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140204.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-10-31
© Science Publishing Group
Bandula Dahanayake
Universe: Not Expanding
2
4
70
70
2014-10-31
2014-10-31
10.11648/j.ijass.20140204.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140204.12
© Science Publishing Group
Information Loss Paradox Resolved by Nonsingular Hyperbolic Spacetime
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140205.11
Black holes owe their existence to the presence of singularity. Singularity appears theoretically as a result to the Schwarzschild solution in asymptotically flat spacetime. Such an approximated Schwarzschild solution creates singularity (when r = 0). This false paradigm constitutes our observation. The observer is operating within a "paradigm". Observations being made are not complete in themselves, they interpreted within a theory (a paradigm). Schwarzschild solution singularity paradigm works as a lunette, through which we imagine that we could observe Black holes. Black holes have never been seen directly, their existence is just a matter of illusion. We did prove that the spacetime of the actual Universe is hyperbolic [S. A. Mabkhout, Phys. Essays 25, 112. 2012)]. Neither Schwarzschild metric nor Kerr metric possess singularity in the hyperbolic spacetime [S. A. Mabkhout, Phys. Essays 26, 422. 2013)] . Singularity is the main character of the Black hole. If, in principle, singularity theoretically doesn't exist, Black holes also don`t exist. There is no singularity to crush and destruct the infalling information. In the actually hyperbolic spacetime infalling particles (information) have just come to rest at the origin (r = 0). Hence Information Loss Paradox does no longer exist.
Black holes owe their existence to the presence of singularity. Singularity appears theoretically as a result to the Schwarzschild solution in asymptotically flat spacetime. Such an approximated Schwarzschild solution creates singularity (when r = 0). This false paradigm constitutes our observation. The observer is operating within a "paradigm". Observations being made are not complete in themselves, they interpreted within a theory (a paradigm). Schwarzschild solution singularity paradigm works as a lunette, through which we imagine that we could observe Black holes. Black holes have never been seen directly, their existence is just a matter of illusion. We did prove that the spacetime of the actual Universe is hyperbolic [S. A. Mabkhout, Phys. Essays 25, 112. 2012)]. Neither Schwarzschild metric nor Kerr metric possess singularity in the hyperbolic spacetime [S. A. Mabkhout, Phys. Essays 26, 422. 2013)] . Singularity is the main character of the Black hole. If, in principle, singularity theoretically doesn't exist, Black holes also don`t exist. There is no singularity to crush and destruct the infalling information. In the actually hyperbolic spacetime infalling particles (information) have just come to rest at the origin (r = 0). Hence Information Loss Paradox does no longer exist.
Information Loss Paradox Resolved by Nonsingular Hyperbolic Spacetime
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140205.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-11-12
© Science Publishing Group
Salah A. Mabkhout
Information Loss Paradox Resolved by Nonsingular Hyperbolic Spacetime
2
5
80
80
2014-11-12
2014-11-12
10.11648/j.ijass.20140205.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140205.11
© Science Publishing Group
Space Majors: Towards New Deals
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140206.11
Space is nowadays conceived not only as important for scientific, cultural or security motivations but as a symbol of modernity, of political identity and as a strategic instrument on the international scene. That represents a new challenge for Europe puzzled by the weakening American leadership, the uncertainties of the Russian complex and the rise of the Asiatic nations. In such a context, while too many space policy experts see the space policies of the major space powers as rather conservative and “as usual”, the author cross examines in five points the main policy lines of the space strategies of the US, Russia, China and Europe. Many things have changed in the last ten years and there are today new dynamics at work. Considering these evolutions, it is suggested to start thinking to the future policy lines of the major space powers: towards a broader competition, or the beginning of a new rationale for international co-operation?
Space is nowadays conceived not only as important for scientific, cultural or security motivations but as a symbol of modernity, of political identity and as a strategic instrument on the international scene. That represents a new challenge for Europe puzzled by the weakening American leadership, the uncertainties of the Russian complex and the rise of the Asiatic nations. In such a context, while too many space policy experts see the space policies of the major space powers as rather conservative and “as usual”, the author cross examines in five points the main policy lines of the space strategies of the US, Russia, China and Europe. Many things have changed in the last ten years and there are today new dynamics at work. Considering these evolutions, it is suggested to start thinking to the future policy lines of the major space powers: towards a broader competition, or the beginning of a new rationale for international co-operation?
Space Majors: Towards New Deals
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140206.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-12-26
© Science Publishing Group
Bertrand de Montluc
Space Majors: Towards New Deals
2
6
87
87
2014-12-26
2014-12-26
10.11648/j.ijass.20140206.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140206.11
© Science Publishing Group
Nuclear-Chemical Processes in the Solar Atmosphere
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140206.12
The ideas put forward earlier about the initiation of nuclear processes in a low-temperature plasma as a result of interaction between electrons of high (on chemical scales) energies and nuclei are demonstrated to be helpful in clearing some debatable issues concerning the synthesis of light elements in the solar atmosphere. Specifically the case in point is one of the puzzles associated with the radioactive isotope beryllium-7 whose abundance in the solar atmosphere exceeds the concentration of the stable isotope lithium-7 that is formed from beryllium-7, too, upon K-electron capture with a half-life of 53 days.
The ideas put forward earlier about the initiation of nuclear processes in a low-temperature plasma as a result of interaction between electrons of high (on chemical scales) energies and nuclei are demonstrated to be helpful in clearing some debatable issues concerning the synthesis of light elements in the solar atmosphere. Specifically the case in point is one of the puzzles associated with the radioactive isotope beryllium-7 whose abundance in the solar atmosphere exceeds the concentration of the stable isotope lithium-7 that is formed from beryllium-7, too, upon K-electron capture with a half-life of 53 days.
Nuclear-Chemical Processes in the Solar Atmosphere
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20140206.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-12-29
© Science Publishing Group
Timashev Serge
Nuclear-Chemical Processes in the Solar Atmosphere
2
6
92
92
2014-12-29
2014-12-29
10.11648/j.ijass.20140206.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20140206.12
© Science Publishing Group
Quantum Vacuum Energy, Gravity Manipulation and the Force Generated by the Interaction between High-Potential Electric Fields and Zero-Point-Field
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.11
The idea of manipulating and using the energy associated to electrodynamic quantum vacuum, also known as Zero Point Energy (ZPE), for technological applications as, for example, interstellar space propulsion, represents one of the most challenging question both in theoretical and applied physics. During the past years B.Haish, A.Rueda and H.E.Puthoff proposed a model according to which inertia could be considered as the electromagnetic reaction force to interaction between a body and quantum vacuum zero point field (ZPF), opening interesting perspectives about manipulating inertia by electromagnetic fields. Nevertheless this theory, although interesting from both a theoretical and applicative point of view, is for from being complete and presents some questionable points. More recent results have suggested a novel model of quantum vacuum, ruled by “Planck metric” and characterized by an energy density field, able to give a novel interpretation of mass and gravity in terms of variation of such energy density. In this paper we’ll propose an extension of this model allowing the theoretical possibility of inertia and gravity strength manipulation, as well as a more fundamental theoretical explanation of some assumptions of the Haish, Rueda and Puthoff model. In particular, it will be shown that not only inertia but gravitational “constant” as well can be expressed as functions of quantum vacuum energy density, analyzing their relationships with the electromagnetic field, described by vector potential. Finally we will discuss the possibility of space propulsion system by considering the interaction between the zero-point field of the quantum vacuum and the high potential electric field generated in an asymmetrical capacitor, showing the resulting force is driven by quantum vacuum energy density.
The idea of manipulating and using the energy associated to electrodynamic quantum vacuum, also known as Zero Point Energy (ZPE), for technological applications as, for example, interstellar space propulsion, represents one of the most challenging question both in theoretical and applied physics. During the past years B.Haish, A.Rueda and H.E.Puthoff proposed a model according to which inertia could be considered as the electromagnetic reaction force to interaction between a body and quantum vacuum zero point field (ZPF), opening interesting perspectives about manipulating inertia by electromagnetic fields. Nevertheless this theory, although interesting from both a theoretical and applicative point of view, is for from being complete and presents some questionable points. More recent results have suggested a novel model of quantum vacuum, ruled by “Planck metric” and characterized by an energy density field, able to give a novel interpretation of mass and gravity in terms of variation of such energy density. In this paper we’ll propose an extension of this model allowing the theoretical possibility of inertia and gravity strength manipulation, as well as a more fundamental theoretical explanation of some assumptions of the Haish, Rueda and Puthoff model. In particular, it will be shown that not only inertia but gravitational “constant” as well can be expressed as functions of quantum vacuum energy density, analyzing their relationships with the electromagnetic field, described by vector potential. Finally we will discuss the possibility of space propulsion system by considering the interaction between the zero-point field of the quantum vacuum and the high potential electric field generated in an asymmetrical capacitor, showing the resulting force is driven by quantum vacuum energy density.
Quantum Vacuum Energy, Gravity Manipulation and the Force Generated by the Interaction between High-Potential Electric Fields and Zero-Point-Field
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-10-07
© Science Publishing Group
Luigi Maxmilian Caligiuri
Takaaki Musha
Quantum Vacuum Energy, Gravity Manipulation and the Force Generated by the Interaction between High-Potential Electric Fields and Zero-Point-Field
2
6
9
9
2014-10-07
2014-10-07
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.11
© Science Publishing Group
Gravitational “Constant” G as a Function of Quantum Vacuum Energy Density and its Dependence on the Distance from Mass
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.12
In a previous paper the author has shown the gravitational constant ruling Newton’s law can be expressed as a function of quantum variables related to Zero Point Field as Planck’s time and quantum vacuum energy density. On the other hand the quantum vacuum energy density has been proved to be modified by the presence of a mass within the volume occupied by the mass itself and in the space surrounding it. Furthermore, according to the Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity the same mass determines a gravitational potential that alters the speed of light, the clock’s rate and the particle size as a function of the distance the distance from the center of mass. All these considerations strongly suggest that also the constant G could be expressed as a function of quantum vacuum energy density somehow depending on the distance from the mass whose presence modifies the Zero Point Field energy structure. In this paper, starting from the idea of inertial mass of a body as the seat of standing waves of Zero Point Field and from the picture of a fluid-like model of space, it has been established a model in which the gravitational constant G is expressed as a function of Quantum Vacuum energy density in turn depending on the radial distance from center of the mass originating the gravitational field, supposed as spherically symmetric. The proposed model suggests the gravitational “constant” G could be not truly unchanging but varying as a function of the distance from the mass originating gravitational potential itself, whose approximate analytic expression has been also found and discussed. Finally a possible experimental test of the model, making use of precise measurements on a satellite has been outlined. The proposed theoretical model could be able to give valuable insights into a deeper understanding of the true origin and dynamics of gravity as well as the theoretical basis for unthinkable applications related, for example, to the field of gravity control and space propulsion.
In a previous paper the author has shown the gravitational constant ruling Newton’s law can be expressed as a function of quantum variables related to Zero Point Field as Planck’s time and quantum vacuum energy density. On the other hand the quantum vacuum energy density has been proved to be modified by the presence of a mass within the volume occupied by the mass itself and in the space surrounding it. Furthermore, according to the Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity the same mass determines a gravitational potential that alters the speed of light, the clock’s rate and the particle size as a function of the distance the distance from the center of mass. All these considerations strongly suggest that also the constant G could be expressed as a function of quantum vacuum energy density somehow depending on the distance from the mass whose presence modifies the Zero Point Field energy structure. In this paper, starting from the idea of inertial mass of a body as the seat of standing waves of Zero Point Field and from the picture of a fluid-like model of space, it has been established a model in which the gravitational constant G is expressed as a function of Quantum Vacuum energy density in turn depending on the radial distance from center of the mass originating the gravitational field, supposed as spherically symmetric. The proposed model suggests the gravitational “constant” G could be not truly unchanging but varying as a function of the distance from the mass originating gravitational potential itself, whose approximate analytic expression has been also found and discussed. Finally a possible experimental test of the model, making use of precise measurements on a satellite has been outlined. The proposed theoretical model could be able to give valuable insights into a deeper understanding of the true origin and dynamics of gravity as well as the theoretical basis for unthinkable applications related, for example, to the field of gravity control and space propulsion.
Gravitational “Constant” G as a Function of Quantum Vacuum Energy Density and its Dependence on the Distance from Mass
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-10-07
© Science Publishing Group
Luigi Maxmilian Caligiuri
Gravitational “Constant” G as a Function of Quantum Vacuum Energy Density and its Dependence on the Distance from Mass
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6
17
17
2014-10-07
2014-10-07
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.12
© Science Publishing Group
Neutrino Oscillations Founded on Tachyon Theory of Neutrino
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.13
De Broglie's neutrino relations have been derived in this paper in the spirit of tachyon neutrino theory. The analysis of the physical characteristics of the neutrino as the tachyon particle has been done and a formula derived for the oscillation length. By analyzing phase angle of the plane wave, we came to the conclusion that the oscillations of neutrinos could be performed by speeds greater than the speed of light. Starting off from the application of Heisenberg's uncertainty relation in the micro-world , the postulate of neutrino confinement was introduced in the macroscopic area defined by the neutrino oscillation length. It is shown that the neutrino mass which belongs to the tachyon four-dimension space-time and the neutrino mass of the four-dimension space-time of the theory of relativity are not mutually equal by value, but the corresponding energy and momentum are unchanging.
De Broglie's neutrino relations have been derived in this paper in the spirit of tachyon neutrino theory. The analysis of the physical characteristics of the neutrino as the tachyon particle has been done and a formula derived for the oscillation length. By analyzing phase angle of the plane wave, we came to the conclusion that the oscillations of neutrinos could be performed by speeds greater than the speed of light. Starting off from the application of Heisenberg's uncertainty relation in the micro-world , the postulate of neutrino confinement was introduced in the macroscopic area defined by the neutrino oscillation length. It is shown that the neutrino mass which belongs to the tachyon four-dimension space-time and the neutrino mass of the four-dimension space-time of the theory of relativity are not mutually equal by value, but the corresponding energy and momentum are unchanging.
Neutrino Oscillations Founded on Tachyon Theory of Neutrino
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.13
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-01-27
© Science Publishing Group
Zoran B. Todorovic
Neutrino Oscillations Founded on Tachyon Theory of Neutrino
2
6
23
23
2015-01-27
2015-01-27
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.13
© Science Publishing Group
The GEM Unification Theory of the Vacuum: Did Dimensional Collapse Trigger the Big Bang
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14
The GEM (Gravity EM) unification theory builds on the Sakharov and Kaluza-Klein approaches to unify all four force fields of nature: Gravity, EM, Strong, and Weak using Feynman Path integral formalism. The model is rudimentary, and can be called a “Bohr Model” of unification. It is basically found that Gravity and the other forces can be understood as quantum electrodynamics. In particular the proton emerges as a fundamental particle despite being composed of quarks and is the principle interaction vertex of the Higgs boson, which is seen here as direct consequence of a hidden 5th dimension, where the Higgs mass is due to 5th dimensional compactification. Collapse and compactification of a 5th dimension is argued as the triggering event for the Big Bang. A particle mass formula based on Feynman Path Integrals including paths across the hidden 5th dimension gives the proton and electron masses to high accuracy and finds the charged bosons responsible for the short range nuclear forces. The masses calculated for the particles are as follows: the charged pion m = 2 me / 140.0 MeV and W boson: mw =2 mp = 80.4 GeV. The c meson m =2985 GeV is identified with the 5th dimension compactification force mediated by the Radion field. The Higgs boson associated with this mass inducing field is the most general EM+Radion scattering quanta off the hidden dimension size with a mass mp/α 127.7 GeV. This results in a structural resonance Higgs = rp where Higgs is the Compton radius of the Higgs boson and Higgs =c/mHiggsc2 the rp electro-dynamic length of the proton rp=e2/mpc2. Vacuum decay results from this value of the Higgs boson mass, which is a key parameter in a mass system that creates the proton-electron mass system and thus hydrogen in the Big Bang. The vacuum is found to decay into proton-electron pairs and to give an “eternally inflating” cosmos of Hubble Time TH ( 9/ )1/3 /2 e2 /(4oGmemp ) re/c = 1.2 x1010 years. The predicted value of the CBR(Cosmic Background Radiation) temperature from this vacuum decay is TCBR (4cGme2/(3Th2Stefan-Boltz.)1/3 = 2.65K Support for this consists of observation of the failure of the Sunaeyev-Zeldovich effect, where distant galaxies are not observed to cast shadows in the CBR indicating a source for the CBR in the vacuum itself in the line of sight to more distant galaxies.
The GEM (Gravity EM) unification theory builds on the Sakharov and Kaluza-Klein approaches to unify all four force fields of nature: Gravity, EM, Strong, and Weak using Feynman Path integral formalism. The model is rudimentary, and can be called a “Bohr Model” of unification. It is basically found that Gravity and the other forces can be understood as quantum electrodynamics. In particular the proton emerges as a fundamental particle despite being composed of quarks and is the principle interaction vertex of the Higgs boson, which is seen here as direct consequence of a hidden 5th dimension, where the Higgs mass is due to 5th dimensional compactification. Collapse and compactification of a 5th dimension is argued as the triggering event for the Big Bang. A particle mass formula based on Feynman Path Integrals including paths across the hidden 5th dimension gives the proton and electron masses to high accuracy and finds the charged bosons responsible for the short range nuclear forces. The masses calculated for the particles are as follows: the charged pion m = 2 me / 140.0 MeV and W boson: mw =2 mp = 80.4 GeV. The c meson m =2985 GeV is identified with the 5th dimension compactification force mediated by the Radion field. The Higgs boson associated with this mass inducing field is the most general EM+Radion scattering quanta off the hidden dimension size with a mass mp/α 127.7 GeV. This results in a structural resonance Higgs = rp where Higgs is the Compton radius of the Higgs boson and Higgs =c/mHiggsc2 the rp electro-dynamic length of the proton rp=e2/mpc2. Vacuum decay results from this value of the Higgs boson mass, which is a key parameter in a mass system that creates the proton-electron mass system and thus hydrogen in the Big Bang. The vacuum is found to decay into proton-electron pairs and to give an “eternally inflating” cosmos of Hubble Time TH ( 9/ )1/3 /2 e2 /(4oGmemp ) re/c = 1.2 x1010 years. The predicted value of the CBR(Cosmic Background Radiation) temperature from this vacuum decay is TCBR (4cGme2/(3Th2Stefan-Boltz.)1/3 = 2.65K Support for this consists of observation of the failure of the Sunaeyev-Zeldovich effect, where distant galaxies are not observed to cast shadows in the CBR indicating a source for the CBR in the vacuum itself in the line of sight to more distant galaxies.
The GEM Unification Theory of the Vacuum: Did Dimensional Collapse Trigger the Big Bang
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-03-27
© Science Publishing Group
John E. Brandenburg
The GEM Unification Theory of the Vacuum: Did Dimensional Collapse Trigger the Big Bang
2
6
38
38
2015-03-27
2015-03-27
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.14
© Science Publishing Group
Theoretical Limits on the Efficiency of a Quantum Vacuum Thruster
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.15
Theory and experiments show that vacuum fluctuations in quantum gravity can be abnormally strong, also at the micrometer or nanometer scale, for the following reasons: (1) the Einstein action is not positive-definite; (2) it is the only possible effective gravitational action; (3) quantum mechanics, in the form of the Feynman path integral, must apply to it, because any natural process is the result of all its possible quantum amplitudes; (4) due to (1), there are important non-classical virtual gravitational field configurations which can agree on a common phase. These field configurations can only interact directly with coherent matter, but can emit virtual gravitons which are absorbed by ordinary matter. All this makes possible, in principle, a vacuum thruster much more efficient than those based on the electromagnetic Casimir effect. We give an estimate of its efficiency based on the mentioned microscopic processes and on some parameters observed in experiments on anomalous forces with superconductors. With the observed energy efficiency of the order of 10-4 and an electric power of 10 W per kilogram of mass to propel, we find that a velocity of 0.1c can be reached in ca. 10 years. Possible improvements and practical limits are outlined. We discuss how the concept of ideal vacuum should be modified in order to allow a consistent description of these phenomena.
Theory and experiments show that vacuum fluctuations in quantum gravity can be abnormally strong, also at the micrometer or nanometer scale, for the following reasons: (1) the Einstein action is not positive-definite; (2) it is the only possible effective gravitational action; (3) quantum mechanics, in the form of the Feynman path integral, must apply to it, because any natural process is the result of all its possible quantum amplitudes; (4) due to (1), there are important non-classical virtual gravitational field configurations which can agree on a common phase. These field configurations can only interact directly with coherent matter, but can emit virtual gravitons which are absorbed by ordinary matter. All this makes possible, in principle, a vacuum thruster much more efficient than those based on the electromagnetic Casimir effect. We give an estimate of its efficiency based on the mentioned microscopic processes and on some parameters observed in experiments on anomalous forces with superconductors. With the observed energy efficiency of the order of 10-4 and an electric power of 10 W per kilogram of mass to propel, we find that a velocity of 0.1c can be reached in ca. 10 years. Possible improvements and practical limits are outlined. We discuss how the concept of ideal vacuum should be modified in order to allow a consistent description of these phenomena.
Theoretical Limits on the Efficiency of a Quantum Vacuum Thruster
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.15
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-03-27
© Science Publishing Group
G. Modanese
Theoretical Limits on the Efficiency of a Quantum Vacuum Thruster
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6
45
45
2015-03-27
2015-03-27
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.15
© Science Publishing Group
Fundamental Concepts − from Force to Energy
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.16
This paper discusses the nature of reality on the bases of novel fundamental concepts arisen out of the Dynamic Universe theory and the period doubling mechanism presented in papers The Dynamic Universe – space as a spherically closed energy system by Tuomo Suntola [1], and On the Planck scale and properties of matter by Ari Lehto [2] in this issue. The Dynamic Universe model and the period doubling mechanism open a new perspective on the physical reality and the primary laws of nature. Such a reorientation challenges the bases of the existing theory structures. The fundamental change of paradigm stimulates a deep philosophical study of the basic assumptions and concepts. Antique metaphysics created great principles but met its limits with the lack of empiricism. The triumph of modern physics can be seen in our phenomenal technological progress but the main objective of a scientific theory – to make nature understandable – has not been met. A theory is not inherently correct or wrong but it describes chosen phenomena accurately or less accurately, widely in all circumstances or only in a limited sense. A theory may rely on philosophical ideas of the laws of nature, or it may discern the laws of nature via a mathematical description of observations. A comprehensive theory comprises clear philosophical bases with a minimal number of postulates, without compromising experimental evidence and testable predictions.
This paper discusses the nature of reality on the bases of novel fundamental concepts arisen out of the Dynamic Universe theory and the period doubling mechanism presented in papers The Dynamic Universe – space as a spherically closed energy system by Tuomo Suntola [1], and On the Planck scale and properties of matter by Ari Lehto [2] in this issue. The Dynamic Universe model and the period doubling mechanism open a new perspective on the physical reality and the primary laws of nature. Such a reorientation challenges the bases of the existing theory structures. The fundamental change of paradigm stimulates a deep philosophical study of the basic assumptions and concepts. Antique metaphysics created great principles but met its limits with the lack of empiricism. The triumph of modern physics can be seen in our phenomenal technological progress but the main objective of a scientific theory – to make nature understandable – has not been met. A theory is not inherently correct or wrong but it describes chosen phenomena accurately or less accurately, widely in all circumstances or only in a limited sense. A theory may rely on philosophical ideas of the laws of nature, or it may discern the laws of nature via a mathematical description of observations. A comprehensive theory comprises clear philosophical bases with a minimal number of postulates, without compromising experimental evidence and testable predictions.
Fundamental Concepts − from Force to Energy
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.16
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-03-27
© Science Publishing Group
Tuomo Suntola
Ari Lehto
Tarja Kallio-Tamminen
Heikki Sipilä
Fundamental Concepts − from Force to Energy
2
6
56
56
2015-03-27
2015-03-27
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.16
© Science Publishing Group
On the Planck Scale and Properties of Matter
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.17
Period doubling, or a frequency halving sequence, is a common property of nonlinear dynamical systems. Period can be related to other physical quantities, e.g. length, energy and temperature, which obtain the corresponding doubling/halving behavior. It is found that physical properties of natural phenomena, systems and elementary particles can be derived directly from the Planck time, taken as the fundamental period. Analysis of experimental data suggests that the period doubling process takes place in three and four internal degrees of freedom. It is further found out that long term stability complies with the stability condition of nonlinear dynamical systems. A theory of period doubling in 1/r-type nonlinear systems with three and four internal degrees of freedom is presented.
Period doubling, or a frequency halving sequence, is a common property of nonlinear dynamical systems. Period can be related to other physical quantities, e.g. length, energy and temperature, which obtain the corresponding doubling/halving behavior. It is found that physical properties of natural phenomena, systems and elementary particles can be derived directly from the Planck time, taken as the fundamental period. Analysis of experimental data suggests that the period doubling process takes place in three and four internal degrees of freedom. It is further found out that long term stability complies with the stability condition of nonlinear dynamical systems. A theory of period doubling in 1/r-type nonlinear systems with three and four internal degrees of freedom is presented.
On the Planck Scale and Properties of Matter
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.17
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-03-27
© Science Publishing Group
Ari Lehto
On the Planck Scale and Properties of Matter
2
6
65
65
2015-03-27
2015-03-27
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.17
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.17
© Science Publishing Group
The Dynamic Universe – Space as a Spherically Closed Energy System
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.18
The Dynamic Universe model comprises a holistic view and detailed study of space as a spherically closed 3-dimensional energy system in a 4-dimensional universe. It is based on zero-energy balance of motion and gravitation of space as a 3D surface of a 4-sphere – contracting and expanding in the direction of the 4-radius. Such a dynamic solution shows the rest energy of mass in space as the energy of motion mass possesses due to the expansion. DU shows relativity as a consequence of the conservation of total energy and the zero-energy balance in interactions in space, and allows the derivation of physical and cosmological predictions in relatively simple mathematics – with no need to rely on kinematically derived coordinate transformations. The postulates DU employs do not include the principle of relativity, the equivalence principle, or assumptions about the constancy of the velocity of light. Yet, for local phenomena, including near space, DU predictions are essentially the same as the corresponding predictions given by the special and general theories of relativity. Cosmology predictions in DU fit with observations without the need to free parameters like mass density and dark energy used in Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. The Dynamic Universe model offers plausible basis for philosophical considerations and leads to an intelligible picture of physical reality from quantum phenomena to the cosmological structure and development of space. The universe in this model presents itself as an intricately ordered whole where local structures and expressions of energy and matter are inseparably connected to the rest of space.
The Dynamic Universe model comprises a holistic view and detailed study of space as a spherically closed 3-dimensional energy system in a 4-dimensional universe. It is based on zero-energy balance of motion and gravitation of space as a 3D surface of a 4-sphere – contracting and expanding in the direction of the 4-radius. Such a dynamic solution shows the rest energy of mass in space as the energy of motion mass possesses due to the expansion. DU shows relativity as a consequence of the conservation of total energy and the zero-energy balance in interactions in space, and allows the derivation of physical and cosmological predictions in relatively simple mathematics – with no need to rely on kinematically derived coordinate transformations. The postulates DU employs do not include the principle of relativity, the equivalence principle, or assumptions about the constancy of the velocity of light. Yet, for local phenomena, including near space, DU predictions are essentially the same as the corresponding predictions given by the special and general theories of relativity. Cosmology predictions in DU fit with observations without the need to free parameters like mass density and dark energy used in Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. The Dynamic Universe model offers plausible basis for philosophical considerations and leads to an intelligible picture of physical reality from quantum phenomena to the cosmological structure and development of space. The universe in this model presents itself as an intricately ordered whole where local structures and expressions of energy and matter are inseparably connected to the rest of space.
The Dynamic Universe – Space as a Spherically Closed Energy System
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.18
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-03-27
© Science Publishing Group
Tuomo Suntola
The Dynamic Universe – Space as a Spherically Closed Energy System
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6
85
85
2015-03-27
2015-03-27
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.18
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.18
© Science Publishing Group
Compact Steep-Spectrum Radio Sources and Ambient Medium Density
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150301.11
Analytical and statistical methods,with some plausible assumptions, have been used in this work to show presence of dense medium around compact steep-spectrum sources in our sample. This is done by carrying out regression analyses using our estimated jet’s internal densities (n_j ) and some other source parameters for possible deductions. Results indicate that n_j-D and n_j-n_e data (where D and n_e are respectively, observed source linear size and ambient medium density) show strong correlations and yield power-law relations of the forms, n_j~D^(-3.54±0.02) and n_j~n_e^(1.68±0.08). A comparison with obtained theoretical relations suggestively indicates presence of dense gases around these sources. In addition, a simple linear regression analysis of ν_p-n_j data shows that jet’s particles may be responsible (in addition to the ambient gases) for the observed spectral turnover characteristic of compact steep spectrum sources.
Analytical and statistical methods,with some plausible assumptions, have been used in this work to show presence of dense medium around compact steep-spectrum sources in our sample. This is done by carrying out regression analyses using our estimated jet’s internal densities (n_j ) and some other source parameters for possible deductions. Results indicate that n_j-D and n_j-n_e data (where D and n_e are respectively, observed source linear size and ambient medium density) show strong correlations and yield power-law relations of the forms, n_j~D^(-3.54±0.02) and n_j~n_e^(1.68±0.08). A comparison with obtained theoretical relations suggestively indicates presence of dense gases around these sources. In addition, a simple linear regression analysis of ν_p-n_j data shows that jet’s particles may be responsible (in addition to the ambient gases) for the observed spectral turnover characteristic of compact steep spectrum sources.
Compact Steep-Spectrum Radio Sources and Ambient Medium Density
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150301.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-02-16
© Science Publishing Group
Ezeugo Jeremiah Chukwuemerie
Compact Steep-Spectrum Radio Sources and Ambient Medium Density
3
1
6
6
2015-02-16
2015-02-16
10.11648/j.ijass.20150301.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150301.11
© Science Publishing Group
Universal Relativity: Absolute Time and Mass
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150301.12
The nature of the universe is such the speed of light in a homogeneous medium is a constant that is determined by the permittivity and permeability of the medium including a vacuum; a path of light appears to depend on the observer’s frame of reference. This led to believe that the time depends on the observer’s frame of reference, which is an inherent assumption in the Special Relativity. The Special Relativity further stipulates that the mass depends on the observer’s frame of reference. The both time dilation and mass dilation of moving objects are the foundation of the Special Relativity by human design; they are not inherent characteristics of the universe. In the Universal Theory of Relativity the time and mass are absolute. When an object is in motion, time and mass remain unchanged; however the geometry of the object contracts in all directions leading to the volume contraction. Since mass is absolute, the mass-density dilates due to the volume contraction. When an object reaches the speed of light, its mass-density reaches infinity while the mass remains unchanged; this gives rise to extreme close proximity gravitation within the boundary of the object at rest, which is the event horizon. In the Special Relativity, the contraction of the volume of a moving object is not taken into account, and hence the increase in gravity of a moving object is erroneously attributed to mass dilation, which led to the celebrated mass-energy relationship that does not hold when the time and mass are absolute. When time and mass are absolute what prevails is the mass-density and energy-density relationship. When an object is in motion, its gravity dilates as a result of volume contraction while the time and mass remain the same. In the Special Relativity, the time, mass, and length, all depend on the observer’s frame of reference, and hence the corrections have to be made to all. However, in the Universal Relativity, only the change in the geometry has to be taken into account. An object moving in space at an acceleration g, and an object at rest under gravitation g are not equivalent; the principle of equivalence does not hold. The gravity does not bend light, only a density gradient in a medium does. A second is always a second, and mass remains the same irrespective of the speed and the location of the object in the universe.
The nature of the universe is such the speed of light in a homogeneous medium is a constant that is determined by the permittivity and permeability of the medium including a vacuum; a path of light appears to depend on the observer’s frame of reference. This led to believe that the time depends on the observer’s frame of reference, which is an inherent assumption in the Special Relativity. The Special Relativity further stipulates that the mass depends on the observer’s frame of reference. The both time dilation and mass dilation of moving objects are the foundation of the Special Relativity by human design; they are not inherent characteristics of the universe. In the Universal Theory of Relativity the time and mass are absolute. When an object is in motion, time and mass remain unchanged; however the geometry of the object contracts in all directions leading to the volume contraction. Since mass is absolute, the mass-density dilates due to the volume contraction. When an object reaches the speed of light, its mass-density reaches infinity while the mass remains unchanged; this gives rise to extreme close proximity gravitation within the boundary of the object at rest, which is the event horizon. In the Special Relativity, the contraction of the volume of a moving object is not taken into account, and hence the increase in gravity of a moving object is erroneously attributed to mass dilation, which led to the celebrated mass-energy relationship that does not hold when the time and mass are absolute. When time and mass are absolute what prevails is the mass-density and energy-density relationship. When an object is in motion, its gravity dilates as a result of volume contraction while the time and mass remain the same. In the Special Relativity, the time, mass, and length, all depend on the observer’s frame of reference, and hence the corrections have to be made to all. However, in the Universal Relativity, only the change in the geometry has to be taken into account. An object moving in space at an acceleration g, and an object at rest under gravitation g are not equivalent; the principle of equivalence does not hold. The gravity does not bend light, only a density gradient in a medium does. A second is always a second, and mass remains the same irrespective of the speed and the location of the object in the universe.
Universal Relativity: Absolute Time and Mass
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150301.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-03-08
© Science Publishing Group
Bandula Dahanayake
Universal Relativity: Absolute Time and Mass
3
1
15
15
2015-03-08
2015-03-08
10.11648/j.ijass.20150301.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150301.12
© Science Publishing Group
New Analytical Solutions for Quark Stars with Charged Anisotropic Matter
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.12
In this paper, we found new exact solutions to the Einstein- Maxwell system of equations within the framework of MIT Bag Model considering a particular form for the measure of anisotropy and a gravitational potential which depends on an adjustable parameter α. The first class of solutions has a singularity in the center. The second class of solutions is regular in the stellar interior. Variables as the energy density, radial pressure, tangential pressure, electric field intensity and the metric functions are written in terms of elementary and polinominal functions. We show that the form chosen for the gravitational potential and the anisotropy allows obtain physically acceptable solutions with any value of the adjustable parameter.
In this paper, we found new exact solutions to the Einstein- Maxwell system of equations within the framework of MIT Bag Model considering a particular form for the measure of anisotropy and a gravitational potential which depends on an adjustable parameter α. The first class of solutions has a singularity in the center. The second class of solutions is regular in the stellar interior. Variables as the energy density, radial pressure, tangential pressure, electric field intensity and the metric functions are written in terms of elementary and polinominal functions. We show that the form chosen for the gravitational potential and the anisotropy allows obtain physically acceptable solutions with any value of the adjustable parameter.
New Analytical Solutions for Quark Stars with Charged Anisotropic Matter
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-11-17
© Science Publishing Group
Manuel Malaver
New Analytical Solutions for Quark Stars with Charged Anisotropic Matter
3
1
12
12
2014-11-17
2014-11-17
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.12
© Science Publishing Group
Modeling Anisotropic Charged Neutron Star in Isotropic Coordinates
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.13
We present a spherically symmetric solution of the general relativistic field equations in isotropic coordinates for charged fluid with pressure anisotropy, compatible with a super dense star modeling. Further, we have constructed an anisotropic model of super dense star with all degree of suitability. We also observed that by increasing anisotropy, the maximum mass of super dense stars also decreases.
We present a spherically symmetric solution of the general relativistic field equations in isotropic coordinates for charged fluid with pressure anisotropy, compatible with a super dense star modeling. Further, we have constructed an anisotropic model of super dense star with all degree of suitability. We also observed that by increasing anisotropy, the maximum mass of super dense stars also decreases.
Modeling Anisotropic Charged Neutron Star in Isotropic Coordinates
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.13
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-12-19
© Science Publishing Group
Ksh. Newton Singh
Narendra Pradhan
Manuel Malaver
Modeling Anisotropic Charged Neutron Star in Isotropic Coordinates
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20
20
2014-12-19
2014-12-19
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.13
© Science Publishing Group
Anisotropic Fluid Star Model in Isotropic Coordinates
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.11
We present a spherically symmetric solution of the general relativistic field equations in isotropic coordinates for anisotropic neutral fluid, compatible with a super dense star modeling by considering a specific choice of anisotropy factor that includes a positive constant “” defined as anisotropy parameter, which varies the relation between the radial and tangential pressure. Further, we have constructed a super-dense star model with all degree of suitability. We have found that the maximum mass decreases with the increase of anisotropy parameter (α). The robustness of our result is that it matches with the recent discoveries.
We present a spherically symmetric solution of the general relativistic field equations in isotropic coordinates for anisotropic neutral fluid, compatible with a super dense star modeling by considering a specific choice of anisotropy factor that includes a positive constant “” defined as anisotropy parameter, which varies the relation between the radial and tangential pressure. Further, we have constructed a super-dense star model with all degree of suitability. We have found that the maximum mass decreases with the increase of anisotropy parameter (α). The robustness of our result is that it matches with the recent discoveries.
Anisotropic Fluid Star Model in Isotropic Coordinates
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2014-10-15
© Science Publishing Group
Neeraj Pant
Narendra Pradhan
Manuel Malaver
Anisotropic Fluid Star Model in Isotropic Coordinates
3
1
5
5
2014-10-15
2014-10-15
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030101.11
© Science Publishing Group
The Solar System: A New Geometric Classification and Prediction of a New Asteroid
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150302.11
One of the most popular theories of measuring planetary distances in the solar system is Bode's law, but this law has some deviations when compared to the real distances. In this paper a new classification (Hazaymeh-Hawarey Classification) is presented. This classification aims to explain the inability of Bode's law to identify the two orbital dimensions of Neptune and Pluto, and it provides a new geometric image for the orbital distribution of the solar system, including Neptune and Pluto. This new classification shows that orbits of the solar system are divided into four equal groups, where the (10/3 = 4) is true. It also discovers that the two dimensions of Neptune and Pluto are much more systematic in the solar system, compared to Bode's law. The new classification includes the adjustment of the distances of Sedna and Eris, and enables the mathematical identification of a new asteroid located after Iris, even before the astronomical verification. The new classification reveals the symmetry and the anomaly of the solar system orbits and that the diameters of the first and fourth groups follow a geometric sequence. According to this, the diameter of the new asteroid can be determined.
One of the most popular theories of measuring planetary distances in the solar system is Bode's law, but this law has some deviations when compared to the real distances. In this paper a new classification (Hazaymeh-Hawarey Classification) is presented. This classification aims to explain the inability of Bode's law to identify the two orbital dimensions of Neptune and Pluto, and it provides a new geometric image for the orbital distribution of the solar system, including Neptune and Pluto. This new classification shows that orbits of the solar system are divided into four equal groups, where the (10/3 = 4) is true. It also discovers that the two dimensions of Neptune and Pluto are much more systematic in the solar system, compared to Bode's law. The new classification includes the adjustment of the distances of Sedna and Eris, and enables the mathematical identification of a new asteroid located after Iris, even before the astronomical verification. The new classification reveals the symmetry and the anomaly of the solar system orbits and that the diameters of the first and fourth groups follow a geometric sequence. According to this, the diameter of the new asteroid can be determined.
The Solar System: A New Geometric Classification and Prediction of a New Asteroid
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150302.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-03-24
© Science Publishing Group
Ahmad Hazaymeh
Mosab Hawarey
Khaled Hazaymeh
The Solar System: A New Geometric Classification and Prediction of a New Asteroid
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2
19
19
2015-03-24
2015-03-24
10.11648/j.ijass.20150302.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150302.11
© Science Publishing Group
On the Dependence of Spectral Turnover on Linear Size of Compact Steep Spectrum Radio Sources
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150302.12
Frequency peak/linear size (ν_p-D) relation gives the strongest correlation among all the currently observable physical properties of Compact Steep Spectrum Sources (CSSs). This strong correlation suggests that the spectral turnover constitutes a characteristic signature of dense gases around the CSS sources which may be used to constrain physical mechanisms that govern the dynamical evolution of CSS sources. We have therefore, carried out statistical analyses to ascertain whether the observed ν_p-D correlation is real or an artifact arising from a possible spectral turnover/radio luminosity (ν_p-P) and/or linear size/radio luminosity (D-P) correlations. Our results show only a marginally significant ν_p-P correlation (correlation coefficient, r≈0.3) and apparently little or no D-P correlation. This suggests that the mechanism for the spectral turnover lies mainly in the source size according to the relation, ν_p~D^(-0.7), with correlation coefficient, r≈-0.9.
Frequency peak/linear size (ν_p-D) relation gives the strongest correlation among all the currently observable physical properties of Compact Steep Spectrum Sources (CSSs). This strong correlation suggests that the spectral turnover constitutes a characteristic signature of dense gases around the CSS sources which may be used to constrain physical mechanisms that govern the dynamical evolution of CSS sources. We have therefore, carried out statistical analyses to ascertain whether the observed ν_p-D correlation is real or an artifact arising from a possible spectral turnover/radio luminosity (ν_p-P) and/or linear size/radio luminosity (D-P) correlations. Our results show only a marginally significant ν_p-P correlation (correlation coefficient, r≈0.3) and apparently little or no D-P correlation. This suggests that the mechanism for the spectral turnover lies mainly in the source size according to the relation, ν_p~D^(-0.7), with correlation coefficient, r≈-0.9.
On the Dependence of Spectral Turnover on Linear Size of Compact Steep Spectrum Radio Sources
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150302.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-05-01
© Science Publishing Group
Ezeugo Jeremiah Chukwuemerie
On the Dependence of Spectral Turnover on Linear Size of Compact Steep Spectrum Radio Sources
3
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24
24
2015-05-01
2015-05-01
10.11648/j.ijass.20150302.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150302.12
© Science Publishing Group
Study of Higher Harmonics of Cosmic Ray Intensity on Quiet Days at Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030201.12
The cosmic ray (CR) intensity data recorded with Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station have been investigated on quietest days (QD) for higher harmonics of daily variation during solar cycle 21 and 22. It has been observed that inspite of the abrupt change in the amplitude and phase of tri-diurnal and quart diurnal anisotropy in CR intensity, the amplitude of third harmonic is quite significant throughout the period of investigation with larger amplitude during the year 1980 and 1985. Thus, tri-diurnal anisotropy clearly shows 11 year variation at mid latitude neutron monitoring station.
The cosmic ray (CR) intensity data recorded with Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station have been investigated on quietest days (QD) for higher harmonics of daily variation during solar cycle 21 and 22. It has been observed that inspite of the abrupt change in the amplitude and phase of tri-diurnal and quart diurnal anisotropy in CR intensity, the amplitude of third harmonic is quite significant throughout the period of investigation with larger amplitude during the year 1980 and 1985. Thus, tri-diurnal anisotropy clearly shows 11 year variation at mid latitude neutron monitoring station.
Study of Higher Harmonics of Cosmic Ray Intensity on Quiet Days at Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030201.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-03-18
© Science Publishing Group
M. K. Richharia
Study of Higher Harmonics of Cosmic Ray Intensity on Quiet Days at Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station
3
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6
6
2015-03-18
2015-03-18
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030201.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030201.12
© Science Publishing Group
Effect of Polarity Reversal on Third Harmonics of Cosmic Ray Intensity on Quiet Days
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030201.11
The cosmic ray (CR) intensity data recorded with Goose Bay Neutron Monitoring Station have been investigated on 60 quietest days (QD) in a year for studying the variation in tri diurnal anisotropy during solar cycle 21 and 22. It has been observed that in spite of abrupt change in the amplitude and phase of tri-diurnal anisotropy in CR intensity, the amplitude is quite significant throughout period of investigation with small amplitude during 1981 and 1990. Further, the phase shift to earlier hours during 1990-91 showing the dependence on the polarity of solar magnetic field, which is attributed to drift effect. Thus, the tri-diurnal anisotropy clearly shows 11 year type variation at mid-latitude neutron monitoring station.
The cosmic ray (CR) intensity data recorded with Goose Bay Neutron Monitoring Station have been investigated on 60 quietest days (QD) in a year for studying the variation in tri diurnal anisotropy during solar cycle 21 and 22. It has been observed that in spite of abrupt change in the amplitude and phase of tri-diurnal anisotropy in CR intensity, the amplitude is quite significant throughout period of investigation with small amplitude during 1981 and 1990. Further, the phase shift to earlier hours during 1990-91 showing the dependence on the polarity of solar magnetic field, which is attributed to drift effect. Thus, the tri-diurnal anisotropy clearly shows 11 year type variation at mid-latitude neutron monitoring station.
Effect of Polarity Reversal on Third Harmonics of Cosmic Ray Intensity on Quiet Days
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030201.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-03-18
© Science Publishing Group
M. K. Richharia
Effect of Polarity Reversal on Third Harmonics of Cosmic Ray Intensity on Quiet Days
3
2
3
3
2015-03-18
2015-03-18
10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030201.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.s.2015030201.11
© Science Publishing Group
Electron-Positron Pairs Related to Alfven Waves on the Magnetar Surface
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.11
The phenomena of electron-positron pairs production through the polar cap region of a magnetar is studied. Assuming the distances of electron-positron pair regions from the magnetar centre to be the height scales of magnetic deformed regions and hence determine by adopting the Alfven waves propagation. The maximum potential drop on the magnetar surface and the potential differences in the confined regions are obtained by using Lorentz factor. The attempt is made to find out the curvature photon energy through the polar cap region of magnetar that is greater than critical energy and verify the conversion into electron-positron pairs via synchrotron radiation with their characteristic photon energy. Further, an estimate is made to flow the charged particles per second through the polar cap region.
The phenomena of electron-positron pairs production through the polar cap region of a magnetar is studied. Assuming the distances of electron-positron pair regions from the magnetar centre to be the height scales of magnetic deformed regions and hence determine by adopting the Alfven waves propagation. The maximum potential drop on the magnetar surface and the potential differences in the confined regions are obtained by using Lorentz factor. The attempt is made to find out the curvature photon energy through the polar cap region of magnetar that is greater than critical energy and verify the conversion into electron-positron pairs via synchrotron radiation with their characteristic photon energy. Further, an estimate is made to flow the charged particles per second through the polar cap region.
Electron-Positron Pairs Related to Alfven Waves on the Magnetar Surface
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-05-06
© Science Publishing Group
Abdul Kader
Kalpana Duorah
Electron-Positron Pairs Related to Alfven Waves on the Magnetar Surface
3
3
29
29
2015-05-06
2015-05-06
10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.11
© Science Publishing Group
Day-to-Day Variability of Low Latitude F-Region Ionosphere During Low Solar Activity
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.12
This paper presents an analysis of the F-region variability of the ionospheric parameters [foF2and M(3000)F2] at three low latitude stations during low solar activity periods from January 2006 to December 2010. The diurnal, seasonal and day-to-day characteristics of theseionospheric F-region parameters have been studied in detail. With the use of partial correlation analysis we have computed the correlation between the variation of these parameters and other factors such as the solar radio flux 10.7cm (F10.7)and the geomagnetic AP index. It has been observed that the magnitude of the variability of propagation parameter M(3000)F2aresmoother and smaller than in that case of foF2. It is also observed that for both parameters there are no remarkable changes in day-to-day variability with geomagnetic activity during low solar activity.
This paper presents an analysis of the F-region variability of the ionospheric parameters [foF2and M(3000)F2] at three low latitude stations during low solar activity periods from January 2006 to December 2010. The diurnal, seasonal and day-to-day characteristics of theseionospheric F-region parameters have been studied in detail. With the use of partial correlation analysis we have computed the correlation between the variation of these parameters and other factors such as the solar radio flux 10.7cm (F10.7)and the geomagnetic AP index. It has been observed that the magnitude of the variability of propagation parameter M(3000)F2aresmoother and smaller than in that case of foF2. It is also observed that for both parameters there are no remarkable changes in day-to-day variability with geomagnetic activity during low solar activity.
Day-to-Day Variability of Low Latitude F-Region Ionosphere During Low Solar Activity
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-05-08
© Science Publishing Group
Anju Nagar
Satyadeo Mishra
Surendra Kumar Vijay
Day-to-Day Variability of Low Latitude F-Region Ionosphere During Low Solar Activity
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2015-05-08
2015-05-08
10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.12
© Science Publishing Group
(TOE) a Theory of Everything
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.13
It is (TOE) a theory of everything that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena with unify of all the fundamental interactions of nature: the gravitation, the strong interaction, the weak interaction and the electromagnetism also explains the existence of the elementary particles.
It is (TOE) a theory of everything that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena with unify of all the fundamental interactions of nature: the gravitation, the strong interaction, the weak interaction and the electromagnetism also explains the existence of the elementary particles.
(TOE) a Theory of Everything
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.13
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-05-12
© Science Publishing Group
Loparev Nikolay
(TOE) a Theory of Everything
3
3
49
49
2015-05-12
2015-05-12
10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.13
© Science Publishing Group
Dynamics of a Charged Scalar Field Thin Shell
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.14
This paper deals with the motion of a charged spherically symmetric thin shell composed of a scalar field. The equations of motion resulting from the matching conditions of the two surrounding spacetimes which are described by the Reissner Nordstrom metric are derived. I evaluate the case of massless scalar field, where the scalar field potential is zero, also I evaluate the case of massive scalar field.
This paper deals with the motion of a charged spherically symmetric thin shell composed of a scalar field. The equations of motion resulting from the matching conditions of the two surrounding spacetimes which are described by the Reissner Nordstrom metric are derived. I evaluate the case of massless scalar field, where the scalar field potential is zero, also I evaluate the case of massive scalar field.
Dynamics of a Charged Scalar Field Thin Shell
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.14
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-05-15
© Science Publishing Group
A. Eid
Dynamics of a Charged Scalar Field Thin Shell
3
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54
54
2015-05-15
2015-05-15
10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150303.14
© Science Publishing Group
Nonplanar Geometry Dust – Ion Acoustic Shocks in an Adiabatic Dusty Plasma with Nonthermal Electrons
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.11
An unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of static negatively charged dust fluid, nonthermal distributed electrons, and adiabatic ion fluid has been considered. Basic properties of the dust-ion-acoustic shock waves have been made by the reductive perturbation method to derive the Burgers’ equation for nonplanar geometry. The solution of modified Burgers’ equation in nonplanar geometry is numerically analyzed and it has been found that, the nonplanar geometry effects have a very vital role in the development of shock waves. We also discovered that; the inclusion of the nonthermal electron distribution significantly modifies the shock wave profile. The change of the DIASW structure due to the effect of ion temperature and dust density is studied.
An unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of static negatively charged dust fluid, nonthermal distributed electrons, and adiabatic ion fluid has been considered. Basic properties of the dust-ion-acoustic shock waves have been made by the reductive perturbation method to derive the Burgers’ equation for nonplanar geometry. The solution of modified Burgers’ equation in nonplanar geometry is numerically analyzed and it has been found that, the nonplanar geometry effects have a very vital role in the development of shock waves. We also discovered that; the inclusion of the nonthermal electron distribution significantly modifies the shock wave profile. The change of the DIASW structure due to the effect of ion temperature and dust density is studied.
Nonplanar Geometry Dust – Ion Acoustic Shocks in an Adiabatic Dusty Plasma with Nonthermal Electrons
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-06-25
© Science Publishing Group
Louis E. Akpabio
Akaninyene D. Antia
Nonplanar Geometry Dust – Ion Acoustic Shocks in an Adiabatic Dusty Plasma with Nonthermal Electrons
3
4
59
59
2015-06-25
2015-06-25
10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.11
© Science Publishing Group
Evaluation of the Average Energy Density of the Electromagnetic Component of the Physical Vacuum and Quantum Nature of Gravity
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.12
In the frame of the previously proposed model of the Universe dynamics (Timashev Serge. Planckian Energy-Mass Source and the Dynamics of the Universe: Phenomenology // International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science, 2014, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 33-45), the substance of dark energy is associated with the electromagnetic component of the physical vacuum (EM vacuum). The estimate of this value obtained in this paper shows that the calculated zero-point oscillation energy does indeed constitute dark energy with the density established by the present time. At the same time, the energy density of the ЕМ-vacuum completely defines the dimensionless constant of gravitational interactions, demonstrating the quantum nature of gravity.
In the frame of the previously proposed model of the Universe dynamics (Timashev Serge. Planckian Energy-Mass Source and the Dynamics of the Universe: Phenomenology // International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science, 2014, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 33-45), the substance of dark energy is associated with the electromagnetic component of the physical vacuum (EM vacuum). The estimate of this value obtained in this paper shows that the calculated zero-point oscillation energy does indeed constitute dark energy with the density established by the present time. At the same time, the energy density of the ЕМ-vacuum completely defines the dimensionless constant of gravitational interactions, demonstrating the quantum nature of gravity.
Evaluation of the Average Energy Density of the Electromagnetic Component of the Physical Vacuum and Quantum Nature of Gravity
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.12
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-07-05
© Science Publishing Group
Timashev Serge
Evaluation of the Average Energy Density of the Electromagnetic Component of the Physical Vacuum and Quantum Nature of Gravity
3
4
64
64
2015-07-05
2015-07-05
10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.12
© Science Publishing Group
A Derivation of the Etherington’s Distance-Duality Equation
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.13
The Etherington's distance-duality equation is the relationship between the luminosity distance of standard candles and the angular-diameter distance. This relationship has been validated from astronomical observations based on the X-ray surface brightness and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect of galaxy clusters. In the present study, we propose a derivation of the Etherington's reciprocity relation in the dichotomous cosmology.
The Etherington's distance-duality equation is the relationship between the luminosity distance of standard candles and the angular-diameter distance. This relationship has been validated from astronomical observations based on the X-ray surface brightness and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect of galaxy clusters. In the present study, we propose a derivation of the Etherington's reciprocity relation in the dichotomous cosmology.
A Derivation of the Etherington’s Distance-Duality Equation
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.13
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-07-11
© Science Publishing Group
Yuri Heymann
A Derivation of the Etherington’s Distance-Duality Equation
3
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69
69
2015-07-11
2015-07-11
10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150304.13
© Science Publishing Group
Annual Fluctuations (~10<sup>-12</sup> W•m<sup>-2</sup>) in Ground Level Photon Power Densities: Quantitative Evidence for Possible Modulation From the Galactic Center
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150305.11
The numbers of photons per second for more than a year (2013-2014) recorded every ~2.5 s by a digital photomultiplier unit was maximum during August to October and minimum during February through April. The peak-to-peak difference in quantity for the classical, smooth variation was 2.4 x 10<sup>-12</sup> W m<sup>-2</sup>. This value is within the order of magnitude for a photon source from the galactic center with a power of 1059 J from a spherical surface with a radius defined for a singularity that could be equivalent to the galactic mass. The calculated change in photon flux density from such a source for the annual change in the earth’s distance around the sun relative to the distance to galactic center was ~10<sup>-21</sup> W m<sup>-2</sup> or equivalent to 10 Solar Flux Units (SFU). Data obtained for daily SFU for the years 2009 through 2013 indicated that an average difference was 8 to 10 SFU higher for September-October when the earth would be closer to the galactic center than March-April. The most likely source of the amplitude of the annual variation is consistent with modification by the earth’s position in the solar mass field with respect to the galactic center. These data suggest that at least a subset set of background photon emissions on the earth’s surface display a clear annual variation whose source could originate from a singularity at the distance of the center of the Milky Way.
The numbers of photons per second for more than a year (2013-2014) recorded every ~2.5 s by a digital photomultiplier unit was maximum during August to October and minimum during February through April. The peak-to-peak difference in quantity for the classical, smooth variation was 2.4 x 10<sup>-12</sup> W m<sup>-2</sup>. This value is within the order of magnitude for a photon source from the galactic center with a power of 1059 J from a spherical surface with a radius defined for a singularity that could be equivalent to the galactic mass. The calculated change in photon flux density from such a source for the annual change in the earth’s distance around the sun relative to the distance to galactic center was ~10<sup>-21</sup> W m<sup>-2</sup> or equivalent to 10 Solar Flux Units (SFU). Data obtained for daily SFU for the years 2009 through 2013 indicated that an average difference was 8 to 10 SFU higher for September-October when the earth would be closer to the galactic center than March-April. The most likely source of the amplitude of the annual variation is consistent with modification by the earth’s position in the solar mass field with respect to the galactic center. These data suggest that at least a subset set of background photon emissions on the earth’s surface display a clear annual variation whose source could originate from a singularity at the distance of the center of the Milky Way.
Annual Fluctuations (~10<sup>-12</sup> W•m<sup>-2</sup>) in Ground Level Photon Power Densities: Quantitative Evidence for Possible Modulation From the Galactic Center
doi:10.11648/j.ijass.20150305.11
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
2015-08-31
© Science Publishing Group
Michael A. Persinger
Annual Fluctuations (~10<sup>-12</sup> W•m<sup>-2</sup>) in Ground Level Photon Power Densities: Quantitative Evidence for Possible Modulation From the Galactic Center
3
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73
73
2015-08-31
2015-08-31
10.11648/j.ijass.20150305.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=302&doi=10.11648/j.ijass.20150305.11
© Science Publishing Group