Science Publishing Group: American Journal of Modern Physics: Table of Contents
<i> American Journal of Modern Physics (AJMP) </i> aims to promote rapid communication and dialogue among the researchers, scientists, engineers and policy makers working in the areas of modern physics in the world. It brings the broad fundamental physics literature in established topical areas together and places it within the context of current trends in research and applications. AJMP welcomes the following tier 1 article types: Book Review, Editorial, General Commentary, Hypothesis & Theory, Methods, Mini Review, Opinion, Original Research, Perspective, Review, Specialty Grand Challenge and Technology Report.
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajmp Science Publishing Group: American Journal of Modern Physics: Table of Contents
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American Journal of Modern Physics
American Journal of Modern Physics
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High power disk lasers: advantages and prospects
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20120101.11
The mono-module disk laser concept is an effective design for diode-pumped solid-state lasers, which allows the realization of lasers with super-high output power, having very good efficiency and also excellent beam quality. Since the first demonstration of the principle in 1966 [1] the output power of mono-module disk has been increased to the level of few kW in continuous wave (CW) mode of operation. ”Zig-Zag” disk laser geometry does not look like as a perspective one for further output parameters growing. The scaling laws for mono-module disk laser design show that the limits for CW mode of operation is far beyond 100 kW for output power and the energy can be higher than 100 J in pulsed mode of operation. Due to the efficient porous cooling technology and possibility of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) suppression the operation of the mono-module disk laser geometry is possible in CW and pulse-periodical (P-P) modes at extremely high output power.
The mono-module disk laser concept is an effective design for diode-pumped solid-state lasers, which allows the realization of lasers with super-high output power, having very good efficiency and also excellent beam quality. Since the first demonstration of the principle in 1966 [1] the output power of mono-module disk has been increased to the level of few kW in continuous wave (CW) mode of operation. ”Zig-Zag” disk laser geometry does not look like as a perspective one for further output parameters growing. The scaling laws for mono-module disk laser design show that the limits for CW mode of operation is far beyond 100 kW for output power and the energy can be higher than 100 J in pulsed mode of operation. Due to the efficient porous cooling technology and possibility of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) suppression the operation of the mono-module disk laser geometry is possible in CW and pulse-periodical (P-P) modes at extremely high output power.
High power disk lasers: advantages and prospects
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20120101.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
V. V. Apollonov
High power disk lasers: advantages and prospects
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© Science Publishing Group
The linguo - combinatorial simulation in modern physics
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It is considered the systems with structured uncertainty which is determined by mean of number of the arbitrary coefficients. The arbitrary coefficients defines the chaotic behavior. Any complex system interacts with its changing environment and its viability depends on its adaptability. The number of arbitrary coefficients in the structure of equivalent equations of complex system changes in the process of learning. In systems with more than six variables, the number of arbitrary coefficients increases first, and then, passing through the maximum, begins to decrease. This phenomenon makes it possible to explain the processes of system growth, complication and death in biological, economical and physical-engineering systems. We use the linguo-combinatorial method for investigation of complex systems, in taking key words for building equivalent equations. This phenomenon is able to investigate the adaptability of different atoms and astrophysical systems. The contemporary physics must use the concept of control and information.
It is considered the systems with structured uncertainty which is determined by mean of number of the arbitrary coefficients. The arbitrary coefficients defines the chaotic behavior. Any complex system interacts with its changing environment and its viability depends on its adaptability. The number of arbitrary coefficients in the structure of equivalent equations of complex system changes in the process of learning. In systems with more than six variables, the number of arbitrary coefficients increases first, and then, passing through the maximum, begins to decrease. This phenomenon makes it possible to explain the processes of system growth, complication and death in biological, economical and physical-engineering systems. We use the linguo-combinatorial method for investigation of complex systems, in taking key words for building equivalent equations. This phenomenon is able to investigate the adaptability of different atoms and astrophysical systems. The contemporary physics must use the concept of control and information.
The linguo - combinatorial simulation in modern physics
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20120101.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Mikhail Ignatyev
The linguo - combinatorial simulation in modern physics
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20120101.12
© Science Publishing Group
MSSM Neutral Higgs Production Cross Section Via Gluon Fusion and Bottom Quark Fusion at NNLO in QCD
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MSSM Higgs production cross section in bottom-quark annihilation is evaluated at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD. Scale dependence for both the factorization and renormalization scales for center of mass energies 7, 8 TeV was found. With the help of computer program HIGLU the neutral MSSM Higgs production cross section via gluon fusion at LHC with center of mass energies 7, 8, 14 TeV including next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections is presented. The result for neutral Higgs boson mass is in accordance with the last experimental data received at the LHC.
MSSM Higgs production cross section in bottom-quark annihilation is evaluated at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD. Scale dependence for both the factorization and renormalization scales for center of mass energies 7, 8 TeV was found. With the help of computer program HIGLU the neutral MSSM Higgs production cross section via gluon fusion at LHC with center of mass energies 7, 8, 14 TeV including next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections is presented. The result for neutral Higgs boson mass is in accordance with the last experimental data received at the LHC.
MSSM Neutral Higgs Production Cross Section Via Gluon Fusion and Bottom Quark Fusion at NNLO in QCD
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130201.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Tetiana Obikhod
MSSM Neutral Higgs Production Cross Section Via Gluon Fusion and Bottom Quark Fusion at NNLO in QCD
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2014-01-01
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130201.11
© Science Publishing Group
Depolarization of the Resonance Line of C4+ due to the Electron Beam Density Effect
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130201.14
We investigate theoretically the linear polarization of the Helium-like resonance line 1s2p 1P1 1s2 1S0 emitted from C4+ ions using a steady-state collisional-radiative model, taking into account both the excitation from the ground level 1s2 1S0 and the metastable level 1s2s 1S0 in the population of the 1s2p 1P1 upper level of the resonance line. We analyze the behavior of the linear polarization of the resonance line with respect to the electron density in a wide range varying from 1011 to 1017 cm-3 and for three specific energies of the electron beam. Our results show that when the electron density is sufficiently high, the excitation 1s2s 1S0 1s2p 1P1 provide a significant contribution to the population rate of 1s2p 1P1 level which lead to an important depolarization of the resonance line.
We investigate theoretically the linear polarization of the Helium-like resonance line 1s2p 1P1 1s2 1S0 emitted from C4+ ions using a steady-state collisional-radiative model, taking into account both the excitation from the ground level 1s2 1S0 and the metastable level 1s2s 1S0 in the population of the 1s2p 1P1 upper level of the resonance line. We analyze the behavior of the linear polarization of the resonance line with respect to the electron density in a wide range varying from 1011 to 1017 cm-3 and for three specific energies of the electron beam. Our results show that when the electron density is sufficiently high, the excitation 1s2s 1S0 1s2p 1P1 provide a significant contribution to the population rate of 1s2p 1P1 level which lead to an important depolarization of the resonance line.
Depolarization of the Resonance Line of C4+ due to the Electron Beam Density Effect
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130201.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Zeyneb BEDRANE
Depolarization of the Resonance Line of C4+ due to the Electron Beam Density Effect
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© Science Publishing Group
Rayleigh Waves in a Non-Homogeneous, Thermo, Magneto, Prestressed Granular Material with Variable Density under the Effect of Gravity
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The effect of various inhomogeneity factors on propagation of Rayleigh waves in prestressed elastic granular medium are investigated. Inhomogeneities have been assumed to vary exponentially with depth. Lame’s potential is used to solve the problem. Some special cases have also been deduced. Dispersion curves are computed numerically and presented graphically by using MathCAD. The results indicate that on neglecting various effects of inhomogeneity, initial stress and gravity, the calculations agrees with classical theories.
The effect of various inhomogeneity factors on propagation of Rayleigh waves in prestressed elastic granular medium are investigated. Inhomogeneities have been assumed to vary exponentially with depth. Lame’s potential is used to solve the problem. Some special cases have also been deduced. Dispersion curves are computed numerically and presented graphically by using MathCAD. The results indicate that on neglecting various effects of inhomogeneity, initial stress and gravity, the calculations agrees with classical theories.
Rayleigh Waves in a Non-Homogeneous, Thermo, Magneto, Prestressed Granular Material with Variable Density under the Effect of Gravity
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130201.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Rajneesh Kakar
Shikha Kakar
Rayleigh Waves in a Non-Homogeneous, Thermo, Magneto, Prestressed Granular Material with Variable Density under the Effect of Gravity
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130201.12
© Science Publishing Group
A Method for Analyzing Physical Processes at the Vortex Front in High-Temperature Superconductors
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130201.13
A method of simultaneous analysis of the magnetic and crystalline microstates of superconductors is proposed to find out the specific features of interaction between the crystalline and magnetic microstructures of polycrystalline HTSCs. Qualitatively new results are obtained for samples with different microstructures. For example, regular steps are observed on the magnetic-field dependence of the trapped magnetic flux density Btr(H0) in polycrystalline and epitaxial YBCO films for both increasing and decreasing field. The results of the analysis imply that epitaxial films, as well as bulk and film polycrystalline HTSCs, are "decomposed" into monodomains, crystallites, and subcrystallites with different demagnetization factors. The simultaneous penetration of vortices into crystallites of about the same size and into more regularly arranged subcrystallites gives rise to the above-mentioned steps. As the quality of the samples increases, these steps become more prominent, which is attributed to the enhanced short-range ordering. The absence of steps on Btr(H0) in bulk polycrystalline samples clearly demonstrates the absence of long-range ordering in these samples. It is the vitreousness of the crystalline microstructure of HTSCs that is responsible for the transformations in the vortex system. The similarity of the results obtained in samples with different microstructures points to the universal mechanism of penetration, distribution, and trapping of magnetic flux in these samples. It is found that polycrystalline HTSCs are in fact multistep, rather than two-step, systems. It is shown that the vitreousness of the microstructure of HTSCs and the dense arrangement of twinning boundaries lead to the penetration of magnetic flux in the form of hypervortices into samples and are responsible for the formation of a superconducting glass state on physical principles different from those of the Ebner--Strode model of granulated glass.
A method of simultaneous analysis of the magnetic and crystalline microstates of superconductors is proposed to find out the specific features of interaction between the crystalline and magnetic microstructures of polycrystalline HTSCs. Qualitatively new results are obtained for samples with different microstructures. For example, regular steps are observed on the magnetic-field dependence of the trapped magnetic flux density Btr(H0) in polycrystalline and epitaxial YBCO films for both increasing and decreasing field. The results of the analysis imply that epitaxial films, as well as bulk and film polycrystalline HTSCs, are "decomposed" into monodomains, crystallites, and subcrystallites with different demagnetization factors. The simultaneous penetration of vortices into crystallites of about the same size and into more regularly arranged subcrystallites gives rise to the above-mentioned steps. As the quality of the samples increases, these steps become more prominent, which is attributed to the enhanced short-range ordering. The absence of steps on Btr(H0) in bulk polycrystalline samples clearly demonstrates the absence of long-range ordering in these samples. It is the vitreousness of the crystalline microstructure of HTSCs that is responsible for the transformations in the vortex system. The similarity of the results obtained in samples with different microstructures points to the universal mechanism of penetration, distribution, and trapping of magnetic flux in these samples. It is found that polycrystalline HTSCs are in fact multistep, rather than two-step, systems. It is shown that the vitreousness of the microstructure of HTSCs and the dense arrangement of twinning boundaries lead to the penetration of magnetic flux in the form of hypervortices into samples and are responsible for the formation of a superconducting glass state on physical principles different from those of the Ebner--Strode model of granulated glass.
A Method for Analyzing Physical Processes at the Vortex Front in High-Temperature Superconductors
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130201.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Khalil Rostami
A Method for Analyzing Physical Processes at the Vortex Front in High-Temperature Superconductors
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© Science Publishing Group
Sphere-to-Plane Electrodes Configuration of Positive and Negative Plasma Corona Discharge
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.12
An experimental investigation has been carried out with sphere-to-plane geometrical electrodes for pos-itive and negative corona discharge at atmospheric pressure and different inter-electrode separation. The experimental results have been compared particularly with those refer to point-to-plane and point-to-ring geometriesand a similar common feature has been provided. The current and voltage data was subjected to the relation of Townsend and Ferreira and showed one an upward curvature at low applied voltage (low field region) and then a linear behavior was found in high field region. This means that all acquired current-voltage data for both positive and negative coronas confirm Townsend relation at the inter-electrode distance used in this work. The extrapolated corona inception voltage was followed a non-linear tend with electrode gap distance S. The extrapolated potential Vo for positive corona was more sensitive on the distance S than that of negative corona. The dimensional constants A and K were found to be proportional inversely to the electrode gap distance by different power exponent. The ratios between the dimensional constants A and K for positive and negative corona approached a constant value at gap distance (S 2.5 cm).
An experimental investigation has been carried out with sphere-to-plane geometrical electrodes for pos-itive and negative corona discharge at atmospheric pressure and different inter-electrode separation. The experimental results have been compared particularly with those refer to point-to-plane and point-to-ring geometriesand a similar common feature has been provided. The current and voltage data was subjected to the relation of Townsend and Ferreira and showed one an upward curvature at low applied voltage (low field region) and then a linear behavior was found in high field region. This means that all acquired current-voltage data for both positive and negative coronas confirm Townsend relation at the inter-electrode distance used in this work. The extrapolated corona inception voltage was followed a non-linear tend with electrode gap distance S. The extrapolated potential Vo for positive corona was more sensitive on the distance S than that of negative corona. The dimensional constants A and K were found to be proportional inversely to the electrode gap distance by different power exponent. The ratios between the dimensional constants A and K for positive and negative corona approached a constant value at gap distance (S 2.5 cm).
Sphere-to-Plane Electrodes Configuration of Positive and Negative Plasma Corona Discharge
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Sabah I. Wais
Dunia D. Giliyana
Sphere-to-Plane Electrodes Configuration of Positive and Negative Plasma Corona Discharge
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© Science Publishing Group
A Study of Droplet Evaporation
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.17
We investigate the problem of the vaporization of a liquid droplet in a hotter environment of the same fluid. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved for a physical model which assumes spherical symmetry and laminar conditions in the quasi steady case. The study is mainly characterized by the fact that the equation of conservation of momentum is effectively taken into account and the velocity of the drop is not always uniform. Recession laws which are different from the classical d^2 law can be derived from the zeroth order approximation solution. Additional assumptions on the thermodynamical properties of the gas phase in subcritical conditions restore the classical law and permit the determination of an analytic expression for the vaporization ratio K. The analysis of the evolution of the temperature, the density and the velocity in the droplet and in the gaseous phase reveals the existence of shock waves which develop from the center of the droplet towards its boundary and an unbalanced energetic layer attached to the interface when the velocity is not uniform in the drop.
We investigate the problem of the vaporization of a liquid droplet in a hotter environment of the same fluid. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved for a physical model which assumes spherical symmetry and laminar conditions in the quasi steady case. The study is mainly characterized by the fact that the equation of conservation of momentum is effectively taken into account and the velocity of the drop is not always uniform. Recession laws which are different from the classical d^2 law can be derived from the zeroth order approximation solution. Additional assumptions on the thermodynamical properties of the gas phase in subcritical conditions restore the classical law and permit the determination of an analytic expression for the vaporization ratio K. The analysis of the evolution of the temperature, the density and the velocity in the droplet and in the gaseous phase reveals the existence of shock waves which develop from the center of the droplet towards its boundary and an unbalanced energetic layer attached to the interface when the velocity is not uniform in the drop.
A Study of Droplet Evaporation
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.17
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Koffi Sagna
Amah D’Almeida
A Study of Droplet Evaporation
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.17
© Science Publishing Group
Effective Temperature of the Sun Based on Log Periodic Dipole Antenna Performance In The Range From 45 MHz to 870 MHz
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.14
The Log Periodic Dipole Antenna (LPDA) performance of solar burst monitoring in the range of (45 -870) MHz is presented. This project is under the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) program in order to observe the solar activities within 12 hours per day. At the first stage, we make an effort by constructing LPDA that suitable with the criteria, specification and practical enough with 5.45 meter boom length size of the antenna. The rods then were perforated with nineteen (19) elements that were made of aluminum rods. Two (2) rod aluminums type with nineteenth (19) elements that signify different frequencies. The gain of this antenna is 6.67 which is required preamplifier to amplify the signal of the Sun. From the results, we found that the effective temperature of the antenna is 1.3 dB and the temperature of the Sun during that observation is 1578 K. Some suggestions on improving this design are also presented.
The Log Periodic Dipole Antenna (LPDA) performance of solar burst monitoring in the range of (45 -870) MHz is presented. This project is under the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) program in order to observe the solar activities within 12 hours per day. At the first stage, we make an effort by constructing LPDA that suitable with the criteria, specification and practical enough with 5.45 meter boom length size of the antenna. The rods then were perforated with nineteen (19) elements that were made of aluminum rods. Two (2) rod aluminums type with nineteenth (19) elements that signify different frequencies. The gain of this antenna is 6.67 which is required preamplifier to amplify the signal of the Sun. From the results, we found that the effective temperature of the antenna is 1.3 dB and the temperature of the Sun during that observation is 1578 K. Some suggestions on improving this design are also presented.
Effective Temperature of the Sun Based on Log Periodic Dipole Antenna Performance In The Range From 45 MHz to 870 MHz
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Z. S. Hamidi
S. H. Chumiran
Z. S. Hamidi
N. N. M. Shariff
Z. A. Ibrahim
A. Mohamad
Effective Temperature of the Sun Based on Log Periodic Dipole Antenna Performance In The Range From 45 MHz to 870 MHz
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2014-01-01
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© Science Publishing Group
Metastable Bound State of Likely Charged Classic Coulomb Particles
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.13
When the classical charged particle is scattered on the likely charged target particle, executing the rapid finite motion, a metastable bound state of the incident particle and the target particle may occur. This type of behavior differs dramatically from the Rutherford scattering.
When the classical charged particle is scattered on the likely charged target particle, executing the rapid finite motion, a metastable bound state of the incident particle and the target particle may occur. This type of behavior differs dramatically from the Rutherford scattering.
Metastable Bound State of Likely Charged Classic Coulomb Particles
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Alexander E. Dubinov
Ilya N. Kitayev
Metastable Bound State of Likely Charged Classic Coulomb Particles
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2014-01-01
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© Science Publishing Group
On the Bond between the Chemical Reaction Rate and the Velocity of the System under Study
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On the basis of special relativity and irreversible thermodynamics it is shown how the chemical reaction rates vary under relativistic conditions. It is shown as well that the absolute temperature T will vary according to X.Ott under these conditions. It can be represented as the trace of the tensor of rank 2.
On the basis of special relativity and irreversible thermodynamics it is shown how the chemical reaction rates vary under relativistic conditions. It is shown as well that the absolute temperature T will vary according to X.Ott under these conditions. It can be represented as the trace of the tensor of rank 2.
On the Bond between the Chemical Reaction Rate and the Velocity of the System under Study
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.21
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
E. V. Veitsman
On the Bond between the Chemical Reaction Rate and the Velocity of the System under Study
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2014-01-01
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© Science Publishing Group
Ab Initio Calculations for Properties of Laves Phase V2m (M = Zr, Hf, Ta) Compounds
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.20
A first-principles plane-wave pseudopotentials method based on the density functional theory (DFT), is used to investigate the structural, mechanic and electronic of Laves phase V2M (M = Zr, Hf, Ta) compounds. It is found that V2Hf is mechanically unstable because this compound do not satisfy the conditionC_11-C_12> 0 below 6.27 GPa, it becomes stable beyond this pressure, the bulk modulus B revealing the largest B values for V2Ta compound which are the stable ground state phases according to the total energies. Also there is a strong interaction between V and V, the interaction between M (M = Zr, Hf, Ta) and V is more strong and between M and M is the strongest.
A first-principles plane-wave pseudopotentials method based on the density functional theory (DFT), is used to investigate the structural, mechanic and electronic of Laves phase V2M (M = Zr, Hf, Ta) compounds. It is found that V2Hf is mechanically unstable because this compound do not satisfy the conditionC_11-C_12> 0 below 6.27 GPa, it becomes stable beyond this pressure, the bulk modulus B revealing the largest B values for V2Ta compound which are the stable ground state phases according to the total energies. Also there is a strong interaction between V and V, the interaction between M (M = Zr, Hf, Ta) and V is more strong and between M and M is the strongest.
Ab Initio Calculations for Properties of Laves Phase V2m (M = Zr, Hf, Ta) Compounds
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.20
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
T. Chihi
M. Fatmi
B. Ghebouli
Ab Initio Calculations for Properties of Laves Phase V2m (M = Zr, Hf, Ta) Compounds
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2014-01-01
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© Science Publishing Group
Investigation of Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of KCdF3
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.18
The structural, electronic and optical properties of KCdF3 are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated lattice parameters have been compared to experimental results and demonstrated to be in good agreement with them. The calculated electronic band structure of cubic KCdF3 shows that crystal has a indirect forbidden band gap with value of 2.95 eV from the high symmetry point R to gamma point in the first Brillouin Zone (BZ). The optical spectra are investigated under the scissor approximation in the photon energy range, up to 30 eV. The dielectric function and some optical constants such as energy loss functions, reflectivity, extinction, and absorption coefficients, effective number of valance electrons and refractive index are calculated.
The structural, electronic and optical properties of KCdF3 are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated lattice parameters have been compared to experimental results and demonstrated to be in good agreement with them. The calculated electronic band structure of cubic KCdF3 shows that crystal has a indirect forbidden band gap with value of 2.95 eV from the high symmetry point R to gamma point in the first Brillouin Zone (BZ). The optical spectra are investigated under the scissor approximation in the photon energy range, up to 30 eV. The dielectric function and some optical constants such as energy loss functions, reflectivity, extinction, and absorption coefficients, effective number of valance electrons and refractive index are calculated.
Investigation of Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of KCdF3
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.18
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
M. Nurullah Secuk
Emel Kilit Dogan
urat Aycibin
Bahattin Erdinc
Harun Akkus
Investigation of Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of KCdF3
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© Science Publishing Group
Formation of Relativistic Non-Viscous Fluid in Central Collisions of Protons with an Energy of 0.8 Tev with Photoemulsion Nuclei
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.16
By the methods of mathematical statistics we test a qualitative prediction of the old theory of relativistic hy-drodynamics non-viscous liquid which can be used as a part of the process of hadronization within the modern hydrody-namical approach for the description of the quark-gluon plasma. Experimental data on the interaction of protons with the energies of 0.8 TeV with emulsion nuclei are used. Results do not contradict the formation of relativistic ideal non-viscous liquid in rare central collisions.
By the methods of mathematical statistics we test a qualitative prediction of the old theory of relativistic hy-drodynamics non-viscous liquid which can be used as a part of the process of hadronization within the modern hydrody-namical approach for the description of the quark-gluon plasma. Experimental data on the interaction of protons with the energies of 0.8 TeV with emulsion nuclei are used. Results do not contradict the formation of relativistic ideal non-viscous liquid in rare central collisions.
Formation of Relativistic Non-Viscous Fluid in Central Collisions of Protons with an Energy of 0.8 Tev with Photoemulsion Nuclei
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
U. U. Abdurakhmanov
V. V. Lugovoi
Formation of Relativistic Non-Viscous Fluid in Central Collisions of Protons with an Energy of 0.8 Tev with Photoemulsion Nuclei
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.16
© Science Publishing Group
Point groups in solid state physics I: Point group Oh
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.19
he definitions of all symmetry operations, their permutation counterparts and matrix representations, the multiplication table, all classes, abelian subgroups, and some other subgroups of point group Oh are clearly obtained. For every symmetry operation (or element) of Oh, appropriate figures are pictured for the sake of clarity.
he definitions of all symmetry operations, their permutation counterparts and matrix representations, the multiplication table, all classes, abelian subgroups, and some other subgroups of point group Oh are clearly obtained. For every symmetry operation (or element) of Oh, appropriate figures are pictured for the sake of clarity.
Point groups in solid state physics I: Point group Oh
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.19
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Ayse Delibas
Vildan Aykan
Deniz Turkkan
Harun Akkus
Point groups in solid state physics I: Point group Oh
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2014-01-01
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.19
© Science Publishing Group
Peculiarities of Magnetocaloric Effect in Manganites Connected with Magnetic Heterogeneous State
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.15
Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) or T-effect was studied in La1-xSrxMnO3, Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 and PrBaMn2O6 manganites. It has been found that the maximum value of MCE, measured by direct method, is far less than obtainable by computation from the change of the magnetic entropy in Curie temperature TC. This phenomenon is explained by presence in them of the magnetic two-phase ferromagnetic (F) – antiferromagnetic (AF) state. So in La1-xSrxMnO3 the negative contribution from AF portion of sample lowers MCE and displacesmaximum on T(T)-curve to the higher temperature than TC on 20-40 K. Maximum on T(T) curve of Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 is disposed near TC=134 K in the cooling in the air single-crystal and ceramic samples. The cooling inoxygen of single-crystal,restored the Mn-O-Mn broken connections, increases the volume of clusters with CE-type of AF order, results to that maximum on T(T) curve is disposed at Neel temperature TN of this phase (243 K). Magnetic field, applied to sample during T-measurement, transforms AF clusters into F state and theboth types of clusters decompose at TN. The PrBaMn2O6 manganite has two phase transactions: paramagnetic–F at TC=295 K and F–AF at TN=231 K. Phase with spontaneous magnetization obtains the understated magnetic moment. Curve T(T) has the wide maximum near TC and the sharp minimum near TN with the small T-values in both extremes: 0,13 K and - 0,2 K respectively. This is connected with presence of AF interactions in F phase and F interactions in AF phase.
Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) or T-effect was studied in La1-xSrxMnO3, Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 and PrBaMn2O6 manganites. It has been found that the maximum value of MCE, measured by direct method, is far less than obtainable by computation from the change of the magnetic entropy in Curie temperature TC. This phenomenon is explained by presence in them of the magnetic two-phase ferromagnetic (F) – antiferromagnetic (AF) state. So in La1-xSrxMnO3 the negative contribution from AF portion of sample lowers MCE and displacesmaximum on T(T)-curve to the higher temperature than TC on 20-40 K. Maximum on T(T) curve of Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 is disposed near TC=134 K in the cooling in the air single-crystal and ceramic samples. The cooling inoxygen of single-crystal,restored the Mn-O-Mn broken connections, increases the volume of clusters with CE-type of AF order, results to that maximum on T(T) curve is disposed at Neel temperature TN of this phase (243 K). Magnetic field, applied to sample during T-measurement, transforms AF clusters into F state and theboth types of clusters decompose at TN. The PrBaMn2O6 manganite has two phase transactions: paramagnetic–F at TC=295 K and F–AF at TN=231 K. Phase with spontaneous magnetization obtains the understated magnetic moment. Curve T(T) has the wide maximum near TC and the sharp minimum near TN with the small T-values in both extremes: 0,13 K and - 0,2 K respectively. This is connected with presence of AF interactions in F phase and F interactions in AF phase.
Peculiarities of Magnetocaloric Effect in Manganites Connected with Magnetic Heterogeneous State
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
L. I. Koroleva
A. S. Morozov
Peculiarities of Magnetocaloric Effect in Manganites Connected with Magnetic Heterogeneous State
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130202.15
© Science Publishing Group
Numerical KDV Equation by the Adomian Decomposition Method
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.13
Using the Adomian decomposition method (ADM), we present in this paper a numerical approximation of the solution of the nonlinear KDV equation. The principal task concerns essentially the computation of the Adomian polynomials for this type of equation and thereafter determining a significant criterion to ensure the conditions for convergence of the method.
Using the Adomian decomposition method (ADM), we present in this paper a numerical approximation of the solution of the nonlinear KDV equation. The principal task concerns essentially the computation of the Adomian polynomials for this type of equation and thereafter determining a significant criterion to ensure the conditions for convergence of the method.
Numerical KDV Equation by the Adomian Decomposition Method
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
M. Akdi
M. B. Sedra
Numerical KDV Equation by the Adomian Decomposition Method
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.13
© Science Publishing Group
A Role of the Conservation Laws in Evolutionary Processes and Generation of Physical Structures
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.12
It is well known that the equations of conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, and mass are the equations of mechanics and physics of continuous media that describe material systems such as the thermodynamical, gas-dynamical and cosmological systems. And the field-theory equations, which are used for description of physical fields, are based on the conservation laws that one commonly relates with conservative quantities or objects. It is shown that to conservation laws for physical fields are assigned the closed exterior forms, which follow from the equations of conservation laws for material systems. The process of realization such closed exterior form describes the occurrence of observable formations in material systems (such as waves) and the generation of physical structures, the examples of which are physical structures that form physical fields.
It is well known that the equations of conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, and mass are the equations of mechanics and physics of continuous media that describe material systems such as the thermodynamical, gas-dynamical and cosmological systems. And the field-theory equations, which are used for description of physical fields, are based on the conservation laws that one commonly relates with conservative quantities or objects. It is shown that to conservation laws for physical fields are assigned the closed exterior forms, which follow from the equations of conservation laws for material systems. The process of realization such closed exterior form describes the occurrence of observable formations in material systems (such as waves) and the generation of physical structures, the examples of which are physical structures that form physical fields.
A Role of the Conservation Laws in Evolutionary Processes and Generation of Physical Structures
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
L. Petrova
A Role of the Conservation Laws in Evolutionary Processes and Generation of Physical Structures
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.12
© Science Publishing Group
Multi-Range Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation based on a Low-Inductive Extended Z-Discharge
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.14
Pulse sources of electromagnetic radiation based on a low-inductive extended z-discharge are studded experi-mentally and numerically. Z-discharge is initiated by a high-voltage pulse generator through a long transmission line. It is shown that using a sliding avalanche discharge traveling wave, one can provide electrical breakdown of long discharge gaps in a wide range of initial gas pressure and produce a plasma column at moderate voltages of the generator. Sources alloy to obtain the electromagnetic radiation of different kinds, from red visible range up to hard x-ray one. A new non-pinch mechanisms of radiation generation are discovered in the soft and hard x-ray ranges of spectra. These mechanisms offer a higher efficiency of conversion of elecnrical energy to the energy of a radiating medium.
Pulse sources of electromagnetic radiation based on a low-inductive extended z-discharge are studded experi-mentally and numerically. Z-discharge is initiated by a high-voltage pulse generator through a long transmission line. It is shown that using a sliding avalanche discharge traveling wave, one can provide electrical breakdown of long discharge gaps in a wide range of initial gas pressure and produce a plasma column at moderate voltages of the generator. Sources alloy to obtain the electromagnetic radiation of different kinds, from red visible range up to hard x-ray one. A new non-pinch mechanisms of radiation generation are discovered in the soft and hard x-ray ranges of spectra. These mechanisms offer a higher efficiency of conversion of elecnrical energy to the energy of a radiating medium.
Multi-Range Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation based on a Low-Inductive Extended Z-Discharge
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
V. A. Burtsev
N. V. Kalinin
S. A. Vaganov
Multi-Range Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation based on a Low-Inductive Extended Z-Discharge
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2014-01-01
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.14
© Science Publishing Group
The Signature of Higgs Boson Near Surface Horizon of Oscillating Cylindrical Universe
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.15
First, by using cylindrically symmetric model, the quantum state for cyclic Universe is studied. It is shown that the ground state for oscillating cylindrical Universe is a maximally entangled with two-mode squeezed states on expanding and contracting Hilbert spaces of Universe. Next, the production cross section for each Universe state is obtained. It is ob-served that the probability for producing each state in cyclic Universe depends on different oscillating frequencies of Un-iverse in space-time directions.After that, the effect of Universe oscillation on Higgs boson cross section is considered. To calculate the production cross section for Higgs boson, the production cross section for each Universe state is multiplied by thermal distribution of Higgs boson .It is found that in each Universe state, different amount of Higgs boson is produced. Finally, the signature of Higgs boson near surface horizon of oscillating Universe is studied. When Higgs bosons produce, they decay to quarks and gluons. Thus an enhancement of these partons can be a signature of Higgs boson inside the cyclic Universe.
First, by using cylindrically symmetric model, the quantum state for cyclic Universe is studied. It is shown that the ground state for oscillating cylindrical Universe is a maximally entangled with two-mode squeezed states on expanding and contracting Hilbert spaces of Universe. Next, the production cross section for each Universe state is obtained. It is ob-served that the probability for producing each state in cyclic Universe depends on different oscillating frequencies of Un-iverse in space-time directions.After that, the effect of Universe oscillation on Higgs boson cross section is considered. To calculate the production cross section for Higgs boson, the production cross section for each Universe state is multiplied by thermal distribution of Higgs boson .It is found that in each Universe state, different amount of Higgs boson is produced. Finally, the signature of Higgs boson near surface horizon of oscillating Universe is studied. When Higgs bosons produce, they decay to quarks and gluons. Thus an enhancement of these partons can be a signature of Higgs boson inside the cyclic Universe.
The Signature of Higgs Boson Near Surface Horizon of Oscillating Cylindrical Universe
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Alireza Sepehri
Somayyeh Shoorvazi
The Signature of Higgs Boson Near Surface Horizon of Oscillating Cylindrical Universe
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.15
© Science Publishing Group
Vacuum Energy and Extension to Machian Space-Time Physics by Linkage of Gravitons (Today) with Gravitinos (Ew Era) as Answer to Volovik’S Vacuum Energy, Myths and Reality Document Questions
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.19
We summarize first the highlights of the paper by Volovik, 2006 as to Vacuum energy and afterwards state that the non applicabillty of “Fjortoft theorem” for defining necessary conditions for instability solves certain problems raised by Volovik. The Myths and Realitites of Vacuum energies as stated by Volovik in particular state that there can be no (local?) perturbations of the quantum vacuum leading to a nonzero vacuum energy. Our paper applies the non applicability of “Fjortoft theorem” as another mechanism which could lead to a nonzero vacuum energy. We apply this theorem to what is called by Padmanabhan a thermodynamic potential which could show inititial conditions implying (structual) instability if conditions for the applications of “Fjortoft’s theorem” hold. In our case, there is no instability, so a different mechanism exists.for constructing vacuum energy. We appeal to Machians physics to account for the behavior of massive Gravitons with DE, in sync with extending answers to Volovick’s questions and identifying vacuum energy with DE. Then use Branes-Anti branes to create DE. Key point also is in the uniformity of Planck’s constant in cosmology, too as to preserve consistency of physical evolution.
We summarize first the highlights of the paper by Volovik, 2006 as to Vacuum energy and afterwards state that the non applicabillty of “Fjortoft theorem” for defining necessary conditions for instability solves certain problems raised by Volovik. The Myths and Realitites of Vacuum energies as stated by Volovik in particular state that there can be no (local?) perturbations of the quantum vacuum leading to a nonzero vacuum energy. Our paper applies the non applicability of “Fjortoft theorem” as another mechanism which could lead to a nonzero vacuum energy. We apply this theorem to what is called by Padmanabhan a thermodynamic potential which could show inititial conditions implying (structual) instability if conditions for the applications of “Fjortoft’s theorem” hold. In our case, there is no instability, so a different mechanism exists.for constructing vacuum energy. We appeal to Machians physics to account for the behavior of massive Gravitons with DE, in sync with extending answers to Volovick’s questions and identifying vacuum energy with DE. Then use Branes-Anti branes to create DE. Key point also is in the uniformity of Planck’s constant in cosmology, too as to preserve consistency of physical evolution.
Vacuum Energy and Extension to Machian Space-Time Physics by Linkage of Gravitons (Today) with Gravitinos (Ew Era) as Answer to Volovik’S Vacuum Energy, Myths and Reality Document Questions
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.19
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Andrew Beckwith
Vacuum Energy and Extension to Machian Space-Time Physics by Linkage of Gravitons (Today) with Gravitinos (Ew Era) as Answer to Volovik’S Vacuum Energy, Myths and Reality Document Questions
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.19
© Science Publishing Group
The Theory of Concentration
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.21
The purpose of the theory of concentration is to demonstrate how the photons of energy were concentrated into spherical materials because of the gravity that stabilizes them. In fact, it is the theory of concentration that elucidates perfectly the transition from infinitely small to infinitely great. It should be noted that its concepts are essentially based on the special relativity of Albert Einstein and I could confirm that the formula E=M.C² is correct. However, the theory of concentration rejects every notion of the general relativity. Also, this paper demonstrates that atoms are endowed with gravity that allows the fixation of electrons on their surfaces in order to form molecules; on the other hand, magnetism could be explained by the presence of a cloud that coats atoms and materials.
The purpose of the theory of concentration is to demonstrate how the photons of energy were concentrated into spherical materials because of the gravity that stabilizes them. In fact, it is the theory of concentration that elucidates perfectly the transition from infinitely small to infinitely great. It should be noted that its concepts are essentially based on the special relativity of Albert Einstein and I could confirm that the formula E=M.C² is correct. However, the theory of concentration rejects every notion of the general relativity. Also, this paper demonstrates that atoms are endowed with gravity that allows the fixation of electrons on their surfaces in order to form molecules; on the other hand, magnetism could be explained by the presence of a cloud that coats atoms and materials.
The Theory of Concentration
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.21
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Aziz Ferradji
The Theory of Concentration
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2014-01-01
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.21
© Science Publishing Group
Design of Optical Nor Logic Gates Using Two Dimension Photonic Crystals.
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.18
In this paper, a novel all-optical NOR logic gate based on two dimension (2-D) photonic crystals (PC) is designed and simulated by a cascade of two all-optical switches. The new all-optical switch is composed of a nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) and T-type waveguide. The PC structure has a square lattice of silicon rod with refractive index of 3.39 in air. The bandgap of this structure is derived by the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, which is from a/= 0.32 to a/= 0.44. In this structure to work at the wavelength of 1550 nm, the lattice constant ‘a’ should be 630 nm; the total size of the proposed optical NOR gate is only 18 m × 11 m. The simulation results using two dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method indicated that the proposed optical NOR logic gate is a potential candidature for ultrafast optical digital circuits.
In this paper, a novel all-optical NOR logic gate based on two dimension (2-D) photonic crystals (PC) is designed and simulated by a cascade of two all-optical switches. The new all-optical switch is composed of a nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) and T-type waveguide. The PC structure has a square lattice of silicon rod with refractive index of 3.39 in air. The bandgap of this structure is derived by the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, which is from a/= 0.32 to a/= 0.44. In this structure to work at the wavelength of 1550 nm, the lattice constant ‘a’ should be 630 nm; the total size of the proposed optical NOR gate is only 18 m × 11 m. The simulation results using two dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method indicated that the proposed optical NOR logic gate is a potential candidature for ultrafast optical digital circuits.
Design of Optical Nor Logic Gates Using Two Dimension Photonic Crystals.
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.18
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Wen-Piao Lin
Yu-Fang Hsu
Han-Lung Kuo
Design of Optical Nor Logic Gates Using Two Dimension Photonic Crystals.
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2014-01-01
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.18
© Science Publishing Group
Research of Global Anisotropy of Physical Space on Investigation Base of Changes in and α-decay Rate of Radioactive Elements. Motion of Pulsars and Anisotropy of Cosmic Rays
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.22
Results from experimental studies of a global anisotropy of physical space and new interaction in nature based on analyzing fluctuations in the intensity of the β and α-decay of radioactive elements, motion of pulsars and anisotropy of cosmic rays, are presented. The explanation of the results, based on a hypothesis as to the global anisotropy of physical space caused by the existence of cosmological vector potential AG in limits of theory of byuon, is given. It is shown that vector AG has the following coordinates in the second equatorial coordinate system: right ascension α = 300° ± 10°; declination δ = 36° ± 10°.
Results from experimental studies of a global anisotropy of physical space and new interaction in nature based on analyzing fluctuations in the intensity of the β and α-decay of radioactive elements, motion of pulsars and anisotropy of cosmic rays, are presented. The explanation of the results, based on a hypothesis as to the global anisotropy of physical space caused by the existence of cosmological vector potential AG in limits of theory of byuon, is given. It is shown that vector AG has the following coordinates in the second equatorial coordinate system: right ascension α = 300° ± 10°; declination δ = 36° ± 10°.
Research of Global Anisotropy of Physical Space on Investigation Base of Changes in and α-decay Rate of Radioactive Elements. Motion of Pulsars and Anisotropy of Cosmic Rays
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.22
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Yuriy Alexeevich Baurov
Research of Global Anisotropy of Physical Space on Investigation Base of Changes in and α-decay Rate of Radioactive Elements. Motion of Pulsars and Anisotropy of Cosmic Rays
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.22
© Science Publishing Group
Interstellar Transmitter Concept (King David’s Sling)
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.17
A simple operating principle (similar to a combination of a pottery wheel and a catapult or, simply, the weapon used by David to slay Goliath) coupled with the success of some moderate engineering challenges may allow for the transmission of a carrier wave from Earth to Mars in less than one second!This paper also directly addresses the controversy of light speed variance/invariance (which has arisen from the “wave/particle nature of light” debate) by referencing Joseph A. Rybczyk’s 2012 paper, “Lunar Laser Evidence of Light Speed Variance”.
A simple operating principle (similar to a combination of a pottery wheel and a catapult or, simply, the weapon used by David to slay Goliath) coupled with the success of some moderate engineering challenges may allow for the transmission of a carrier wave from Earth to Mars in less than one second!This paper also directly addresses the controversy of light speed variance/invariance (which has arisen from the “wave/particle nature of light” debate) by referencing Joseph A. Rybczyk’s 2012 paper, “Lunar Laser Evidence of Light Speed Variance”.
Interstellar Transmitter Concept (King David’s Sling)
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.17
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Glen Monahan
Sarvraj Singh
Interstellar Transmitter Concept (King David’s Sling)
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2014-01-01
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.17
© Science Publishing Group
Ricci Flows and Topology Change in Quantum Gravity
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.16
The topology change in quantum gravity is modeled by a Ricci flow. In this approach we consider the Ricci flow as a statistical system. The metric in the Ricci flow enumerated by a parameter is a microscopical statistical state. The probability of every microscopical state is determined by this parameter. The Ricci flow starting from a static wormhole filled with a phantom Sine-Gordon scalar field is investigated numerically.
The topology change in quantum gravity is modeled by a Ricci flow. In this approach we consider the Ricci flow as a statistical system. The metric in the Ricci flow enumerated by a parameter is a microscopical statistical state. The probability of every microscopical state is determined by this parameter. The Ricci flow starting from a static wormhole filled with a phantom Sine-Gordon scalar field is investigated numerically.
Ricci Flows and Topology Change in Quantum Gravity
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Vladimir Dzhunushaliev
Ricci Flows and Topology Change in Quantum Gravity
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2014-01-01
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.16
© Science Publishing Group
Wake Field Flow of a Sphere Falling in a Finite Duct
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.11
We report on a simple study involving a single non-Brownian sphere settling under the influence of gravity in a quiescent viscous fluid housed in a finite square duct. Spheres are shown to achieve terminal velocity in a fraction of the time predicted by infinite fluid dynamics. Terminal velocities agree well with right cylinder equations for spheres with diame-ter-to-width ratios less than 0.45. The finite chamber length results a two-phase flow and interesting wake field dynamics for spheres with diameter-to-width ratios greater than 0.255.
We report on a simple study involving a single non-Brownian sphere settling under the influence of gravity in a quiescent viscous fluid housed in a finite square duct. Spheres are shown to achieve terminal velocity in a fraction of the time predicted by infinite fluid dynamics. Terminal velocities agree well with right cylinder equations for spheres with diame-ter-to-width ratios less than 0.45. The finite chamber length results a two-phase flow and interesting wake field dynamics for spheres with diameter-to-width ratios greater than 0.255.
Wake Field Flow of a Sphere Falling in a Finite Duct
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
J. Markiewicz
W. R. Matson
Wake Field Flow of a Sphere Falling in a Finite Duct
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130203.11
© Science Publishing Group
Pulse Increase at Mass Interaction in an Energy Carrier
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.13
Capability of pulse increase due to the effect of mass addition during pulsejet engines operation is shown. Under definite conditions it is possible to create a pulse even with no reaction mass ejection, which corresponds to a local solution of the Meshchersky equation according to which for a variable-mass body the expelled mass is equal to the added mass. The effect of pulse increase due to mass interaction can manifest itself in liquids, elastic solids and even in living organisms. This can explain an increased efficiency of the wing in the pulsating flow, movement of the so-called ‘inerzoids’ without their interaction with the environment. Possible ways of the effect realization in various spheres of human activities are considered.
Capability of pulse increase due to the effect of mass addition during pulsejet engines operation is shown. Under definite conditions it is possible to create a pulse even with no reaction mass ejection, which corresponds to a local solution of the Meshchersky equation according to which for a variable-mass body the expelled mass is equal to the added mass. The effect of pulse increase due to mass interaction can manifest itself in liquids, elastic solids and even in living organisms. This can explain an increased efficiency of the wing in the pulsating flow, movement of the so-called ‘inerzoids’ without their interaction with the environment. Possible ways of the effect realization in various spheres of human activities are considered.
Pulse Increase at Mass Interaction in an Energy Carrier
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Vasily Ivanovich Bogdanov
Pulse Increase at Mass Interaction in an Energy Carrier
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© Science Publishing Group
On Arising Nanohydrides in Reduced Alkaline Solution
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.11
Studying electron properties of liquid water in the frame of band theory shows that obtaining its non-stoichiometric state is a simple way to vary physical and chemical properties, and changing a Reduction–Oxidation (RedOx) potential of any aqueous solution. In this connection, Fermi level in the band gap, as a measurable characteristic of non-stoichiometric liquid water, is the most convenient energy for monitoring and managing its RedOx potential. The hypo-stoichiometric state, H2O1–z, of liquid water is realized when the position of Fermi level is shifted to the bottom of conduction band. This state can be fixed by micro emulsifying gaseous hydrogen in liquid water or by electro-reducing the alkaline solution (catholyte) with possible forming alkaline (A) nanohydrides (AHH2O) n. As strong reducers, they can be quasi-stable in the aqueous solution and be an effective means for holding the negative RedOx potential of liquid water.
Studying electron properties of liquid water in the frame of band theory shows that obtaining its non-stoichiometric state is a simple way to vary physical and chemical properties, and changing a Reduction–Oxidation (RedOx) potential of any aqueous solution. In this connection, Fermi level in the band gap, as a measurable characteristic of non-stoichiometric liquid water, is the most convenient energy for monitoring and managing its RedOx potential. The hypo-stoichiometric state, H2O1–z, of liquid water is realized when the position of Fermi level is shifted to the bottom of conduction band. This state can be fixed by micro emulsifying gaseous hydrogen in liquid water or by electro-reducing the alkaline solution (catholyte) with possible forming alkaline (A) nanohydrides (AHH2O) n. As strong reducers, they can be quasi-stable in the aqueous solution and be an effective means for holding the negative RedOx potential of liquid water.
On Arising Nanohydrides in Reduced Alkaline Solution
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Alexander L Shimkevich
On Arising Nanohydrides in Reduced Alkaline Solution
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2014-01-01
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.11
© Science Publishing Group
Dark Matter Particle Detection System SQUID - Magnetic Calorimeter
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.15
Physical principles underlying the concept of the Dark Matter (DM) are considered. Problems of Dark Matter particle detection are briefly reviewed. An original two-channel scheme for direct detection of cosmic DM particles is proposed. It is based on a super-low-temperature calorimeter and includes a nuclear spin system whose magnetic response is measured by a quantum interferometer (SQUID). Low threshold and the capability for efficiently suppressing the recoil-electron background are the most important advantages of the proposed scheme. They make it possible to detect DM particles with extremely low recoil energies and carry out direct DM search with high sensitivity.
Physical principles underlying the concept of the Dark Matter (DM) are considered. Problems of Dark Matter particle detection are briefly reviewed. An original two-channel scheme for direct detection of cosmic DM particles is proposed. It is based on a super-low-temperature calorimeter and includes a nuclear spin system whose magnetic response is measured by a quantum interferometer (SQUID). Low threshold and the capability for efficiently suppressing the recoil-electron background are the most important advantages of the proposed scheme. They make it possible to detect DM particles with extremely low recoil energies and carry out direct DM search with high sensitivity.
Dark Matter Particle Detection System SQUID - Magnetic Calorimeter
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Alexander I. Golovashkin
George N. Izmaïlov
Vladimir A. Ryabov
Andrey M. Tshovrebov
Larisa N. Zherikhina
Dark Matter Particle Detection System SQUID - Magnetic Calorimeter
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.15
© Science Publishing Group
The Role of Pion Cloud in the Structure Function and the EMC Effect of 27Al, 56Fe, 63Cu and, 107Ag nuclei
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.12
In this paper we have studied role of pionic contribution in the structure function and the EMC effect for27Al, 56Fe, 63Cu and, 107Ag nuclei. For extracting nuclear structure function, first we calculated contribution of the Fermi motion, and the binding energy effects and, then, we added pionic contribution to them. Also, we used the free GRV nucleon structure functions in the conventional nuclear theory. Extracted results show that using the pionic contribution in these nuclei structure function and the EMC effect give good agreement with experimental data.
In this paper we have studied role of pionic contribution in the structure function and the EMC effect for27Al, 56Fe, 63Cu and, 107Ag nuclei. For extracting nuclear structure function, first we calculated contribution of the Fermi motion, and the binding energy effects and, then, we added pionic contribution to them. Also, we used the free GRV nucleon structure functions in the conventional nuclear theory. Extracted results show that using the pionic contribution in these nuclei structure function and the EMC effect give good agreement with experimental data.
The Role of Pion Cloud in the Structure Function and the EMC Effect of 27Al, 56Fe, 63Cu and, 107Ag nuclei
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Sara Hatampanah
Negin SattaryNikkhoo
Farhad Zolfagharpour
The Role of Pion Cloud in the Structure Function and the EMC Effect of 27Al, 56Fe, 63Cu and, 107Ag nuclei
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.12
© Science Publishing Group
Gravitational Field of Non-conserving Mass Particle
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.17
Gravitational field equations are written in the form of Maxwell’s type field equations. Lorentz gauge on the gravitational scalar and vector potentials is discarded by introducing a gravitational scalar field. It makes the mass particles to be time-dependent. The non-conserving part of the mass causes to produce the gravitational scalar field, which further con-tributes to the gravitational and gravitomagnetic vector fields. This contribution makes possible to produce a repulsive gravitational field by a decaying mass particle beyond a critical distance.
Gravitational field equations are written in the form of Maxwell’s type field equations. Lorentz gauge on the gravitational scalar and vector potentials is discarded by introducing a gravitational scalar field. It makes the mass particles to be time-dependent. The non-conserving part of the mass causes to produce the gravitational scalar field, which further con-tributes to the gravitational and gravitomagnetic vector fields. This contribution makes possible to produce a repulsive gravitational field by a decaying mass particle beyond a critical distance.
Gravitational Field of Non-conserving Mass Particle
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.17
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Ghanshyam H Jadhav
Gravitational Field of Non-conserving Mass Particle
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.17
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.17
© Science Publishing Group
Doppler-Free Comb-Spectroscopy in Counter-Propagating Fields
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.18
The method of Doppler – free comb – spectroscopy for dipole transitions was proposed. The numerical calculations for susceptibility spectrum for two-level system driving by strong counter propagating combs were made. The narrow peaks with homogeneous width arise on the background of Doppler counter. The contrast of these peaks is large for largest amplitudes of comb-components. Power broadening is increasing with increasing of field amplitudes. The amplitudes of peaks depend on the phase difference between carrier frequencies of combs. The spectral range of absorption spectrum is determined by the spectral range of comb generator and all homogeneous lines arise simultaneously. The spectral resolution is determined by the width of homogeneously –broadening lines. The physical nature of narrow peaks is in the existing of multi-photon transitions between manifolds of quasi-energy levels arising for different groups of atoms moving with velocities that satisfy to the resonant conditions 2kv= (n+l)Ω⁄j, where n, l, j-are integers and Ω - frequency difference between comb teeth.
The method of Doppler – free comb – spectroscopy for dipole transitions was proposed. The numerical calculations for susceptibility spectrum for two-level system driving by strong counter propagating combs were made. The narrow peaks with homogeneous width arise on the background of Doppler counter. The contrast of these peaks is large for largest amplitudes of comb-components. Power broadening is increasing with increasing of field amplitudes. The amplitudes of peaks depend on the phase difference between carrier frequencies of combs. The spectral range of absorption spectrum is determined by the spectral range of comb generator and all homogeneous lines arise simultaneously. The spectral resolution is determined by the width of homogeneously –broadening lines. The physical nature of narrow peaks is in the existing of multi-photon transitions between manifolds of quasi-energy levels arising for different groups of atoms moving with velocities that satisfy to the resonant conditions 2kv= (n+l)Ω⁄j, where n, l, j-are integers and Ω - frequency difference between comb teeth.
Doppler-Free Comb-Spectroscopy in Counter-Propagating Fields
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.18
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Sergey A. Pulkin
GuangHoon Kim
Uk Kang
Vasiliy Arnautov
Svetlana V. Uvarova
Doppler-Free Comb-Spectroscopy in Counter-Propagating Fields
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© Science Publishing Group
Evaluation of TSH, T4 and T3 in Human Serum: Standardization on Normal Individuals
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.14
A cross-sectional study of thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in human serum was performed aiming to define their normal values. In total, 201 assays were performed on 70 normal individuals, 26 men and 44 women, with ages ranging from 2 to 84 years. Serum TSH was measured with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kit and T4 & T3 were determined with commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits. The normal values of TSH, T4 and T3 observed in the present study were 0.5 - 5.0 mIU/L, 55 - 169 nmol/L and 1.2 - 3.4 nmol/L, respectively, and their means (±SD) were 2.06±1.08 mIU/L, 113.21±27.62 nmol/L and 1.96±0.54 nmol/L, respectively. The results obtained were found to be in excellent agreement with the previously reported series. It is, therefore, expected that the present study will contribute some useful data in literature to set up normal values of serum TSH, T4 and T3.
A cross-sectional study of thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in human serum was performed aiming to define their normal values. In total, 201 assays were performed on 70 normal individuals, 26 men and 44 women, with ages ranging from 2 to 84 years. Serum TSH was measured with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kit and T4 & T3 were determined with commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits. The normal values of TSH, T4 and T3 observed in the present study were 0.5 - 5.0 mIU/L, 55 - 169 nmol/L and 1.2 - 3.4 nmol/L, respectively, and their means (±SD) were 2.06±1.08 mIU/L, 113.21±27.62 nmol/L and 1.96±0.54 nmol/L, respectively. The results obtained were found to be in excellent agreement with the previously reported series. It is, therefore, expected that the present study will contribute some useful data in literature to set up normal values of serum TSH, T4 and T3.
Evaluation of TSH, T4 and T3 in Human Serum: Standardization on Normal Individuals
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
M. A. Samad
M. M. Haque
M. K. Shah
M. R. Islam
M. C. Mia
Evaluation of TSH, T4 and T3 in Human Serum: Standardization on Normal Individuals
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.14
© Science Publishing Group
Comparison between Asymmetric Electric Force and Magnetic Force
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.16
Motion of an electric dipole, having same type of charge on both poles, in a parallel electric field is studied. The magnitude of the electric field is allowed to vary in the direction perpendicular to its polarization and to remain constant along the direction parallel to the polarization. This electric field applies asymmetric electric force on the dipole, which imprints a motion of rotation. Mathematical analysis of this motion proves that a single particle or a rigid body with inhomogeneous or homogeneous charge density distribution subjected to this electric field follows a motion of rotation too. This curved path appears to be analogous to the curved path followed by the same charged particle in the magnetic field produced by a straight long conductor carrying a steady electric current. However, the asymmetric electric force acts along the direction of motion and the magnetic force acts in the direction perpendicular to the motion of the charged particle, consequently, they produce different effects.
Motion of an electric dipole, having same type of charge on both poles, in a parallel electric field is studied. The magnitude of the electric field is allowed to vary in the direction perpendicular to its polarization and to remain constant along the direction parallel to the polarization. This electric field applies asymmetric electric force on the dipole, which imprints a motion of rotation. Mathematical analysis of this motion proves that a single particle or a rigid body with inhomogeneous or homogeneous charge density distribution subjected to this electric field follows a motion of rotation too. This curved path appears to be analogous to the curved path followed by the same charged particle in the magnetic field produced by a straight long conductor carrying a steady electric current. However, the asymmetric electric force acts along the direction of motion and the magnetic force acts in the direction perpendicular to the motion of the charged particle, consequently, they produce different effects.
Comparison between Asymmetric Electric Force and Magnetic Force
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Ghanshyam H Jadhav
Comparison between Asymmetric Electric Force and Magnetic Force
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.16
© Science Publishing Group
Breakthrough Space Obstacle
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.19
In this work, we try to propose a soliton processing mechanism to explain the phenomena of the Breakthrough Space Obstacles (BSO) based on the concrete experimental dates and figures taken from the somatic science. Through analysis and studying, we find that the sort of bio-electromagnetic wave field (BEF) is an origin of BSO. This BEF satisfies a nonlinear quantum Maxwell equation which is proportional to the change of particle density of object. Moreover, BEF has very broad of spectrum range from 100MHz to 1GHz and possesses high amplitude of the electromagnetic response, and also has width of frequency as well strong strength. It is this BEF allowing object to transform as a big soliton to have BSO probability by the nonlinear quantum interaction.
In this work, we try to propose a soliton processing mechanism to explain the phenomena of the Breakthrough Space Obstacles (BSO) based on the concrete experimental dates and figures taken from the somatic science. Through analysis and studying, we find that the sort of bio-electromagnetic wave field (BEF) is an origin of BSO. This BEF satisfies a nonlinear quantum Maxwell equation which is proportional to the change of particle density of object. Moreover, BEF has very broad of spectrum range from 100MHz to 1GHz and possesses high amplitude of the electromagnetic response, and also has width of frequency as well strong strength. It is this BEF allowing object to transform as a big soliton to have BSO probability by the nonlinear quantum interaction.
Breakthrough Space Obstacle
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.19
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Bi Qiao
Song Kongzhi
Zhang Bao Sheng
Breakthrough Space Obstacle
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.19
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.19
© Science Publishing Group
Radar Theoretical Study: Minimum Detection Range And Maximum Signal To Noise Ratio (SNR) Equation By Using MATLAB Simulation Program
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.20
This paper deals with the minimum detection range versus maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) for several choices parameters like (peak power percent, radar cross section (RCS), antenna gain, coherently pulses, and duty cycle) by using MATALAB simulation program, these programs have been developed to make them easy for any user of evaluating the radar range and SNR equations and make them so faster and more convenient. After enter the input these parameters, the programs will calculate the detection range and SNR of a radar system and view the result as graphically.
This paper deals with the minimum detection range versus maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) for several choices parameters like (peak power percent, radar cross section (RCS), antenna gain, coherently pulses, and duty cycle) by using MATALAB simulation program, these programs have been developed to make them easy for any user of evaluating the radar range and SNR equations and make them so faster and more convenient. After enter the input these parameters, the programs will calculate the detection range and SNR of a radar system and view the result as graphically.
Radar Theoretical Study: Minimum Detection Range And Maximum Signal To Noise Ratio (SNR) Equation By Using MATLAB Simulation Program
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.20
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Sulaiman H. M. Al Sadoon
Badal H. Elias
Radar Theoretical Study: Minimum Detection Range And Maximum Signal To Noise Ratio (SNR) Equation By Using MATLAB Simulation Program
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.20
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130204.20
© Science Publishing Group
Effect of MgO Addition on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Mullite Synthesised through Reaction Sintering of Al2O3 and Algerian Kaolin
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.16
The influence of MgO addition on the structure and properties of mullite prepared through reaction sintering of Algerian kaolin and Al2O3 was investigated. The raw powders were wet ball milled, dried and cold compacted using a uniaxial press. The green compacts were sintered 8 hours at 1600 and 1650°C. The microstructure of samples was characterized using a scanning electron microscope. Mechanical and thermal properties were characterized using Vicker’s hardness tester, a universal testing machine and a dilatometer. It was found that the increase of MgO content from 0 to 3 wt-% increased the hardness of samples sintered 8 hours at 1600°C from 1039 to 1316.57 HV. Also, the increase of MgO content in samples sintered 8 hours at 1600 and 1650°C increased the compressive strength up to a maximum then decreased it. For a sintering temperature of 1600°C, the increase of MgO content up to 2 wt-% increased the flexural strength, but a further increase of MgO to 3 wt-% decreased it again, while for a sintering temperature of 1650°C, the increase of MgO content from 0 to 3 wt-% increased the flexural strength from 103.45 to 472.25 MPa. Amongst MgO containing samples, the increase of MgO content increased the coefficient of thermal expansion; however, it remained lower than the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sample without MgO addition.
The influence of MgO addition on the structure and properties of mullite prepared through reaction sintering of Algerian kaolin and Al2O3 was investigated. The raw powders were wet ball milled, dried and cold compacted using a uniaxial press. The green compacts were sintered 8 hours at 1600 and 1650°C. The microstructure of samples was characterized using a scanning electron microscope. Mechanical and thermal properties were characterized using Vicker’s hardness tester, a universal testing machine and a dilatometer. It was found that the increase of MgO content from 0 to 3 wt-% increased the hardness of samples sintered 8 hours at 1600°C from 1039 to 1316.57 HV. Also, the increase of MgO content in samples sintered 8 hours at 1600 and 1650°C increased the compressive strength up to a maximum then decreased it. For a sintering temperature of 1600°C, the increase of MgO content up to 2 wt-% increased the flexural strength, but a further increase of MgO to 3 wt-% decreased it again, while for a sintering temperature of 1650°C, the increase of MgO content from 0 to 3 wt-% increased the flexural strength from 103.45 to 472.25 MPa. Amongst MgO containing samples, the increase of MgO content increased the coefficient of thermal expansion; however, it remained lower than the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sample without MgO addition.
Effect of MgO Addition on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Mullite Synthesised through Reaction Sintering of Al2O3 and Algerian Kaolin
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
A. Ouali
M. Heraiz
F. Sahnoune
H. Belhouchet
M. Fatmi
N. Saheb
Effect of MgO Addition on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Mullite Synthesised through Reaction Sintering of Al2O3 and Algerian Kaolin
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.16
© Science Publishing Group
Inertial Propagation of Streamers after External Voltage Termination
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.11
The fundamental processes of streamer propagation in the streamer chamber after external voltage termination are considered on the basis of a plasma-waveguide model of gas electric breakdown. The model analyses the time dependence of streamer radiation under the mentioned conditions. The velocity and time scales of the process have been defined, and the electron density is estimated in the plasma waveguide formed before the external voltage termination. Earlier shortcomings of theories of this phenomenon are corrected.
The fundamental processes of streamer propagation in the streamer chamber after external voltage termination are considered on the basis of a plasma-waveguide model of gas electric breakdown. The model analyses the time dependence of streamer radiation under the mentioned conditions. The velocity and time scales of the process have been defined, and the electron density is estimated in the plasma waveguide formed before the external voltage termination. Earlier shortcomings of theories of this phenomenon are corrected.
Inertial Propagation of Streamers after External Voltage Termination
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Alexander V. Shelobolin
Inertial Propagation of Streamers after External Voltage Termination
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.11
© Science Publishing Group
Sessile Axisymmetric Drops in Microgravity Conditions
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.13
Fluid interfaces are producing several static and dynamic phenomena. These interfaces are governing, for instance, the shape of sessile droplets and the spread of liquids on surfaces. In this paper, we will discuss the shape of sessile axisymmetric drops on a solid surface and how it is depending on gravity, obtaining results that are in agreement with experimental observations under conditions of microgravity.
Fluid interfaces are producing several static and dynamic phenomena. These interfaces are governing, for instance, the shape of sessile droplets and the spread of liquids on surfaces. In this paper, we will discuss the shape of sessile axisymmetric drops on a solid surface and how it is depending on gravity, obtaining results that are in agreement with experimental observations under conditions of microgravity.
Sessile Axisymmetric Drops in Microgravity Conditions
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Amelia Carolina Sparavigna
Sessile Axisymmetric Drops in Microgravity Conditions
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.13
© Science Publishing Group
Modification of Einstein's E= mc2 to E =1/22 mc2
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.14
The Egyptian engineering scientist and theoretical physicist Mohamed El Naschie has found a definite resolution to the missing dark energy of the cosmos based on a revision of the theory of Relativity. Einstein’s equation of special relativity E= mc2, where m is the controversial rest mass and c is the velocity of light developed in smooth 4D space-time was transferred by El Naschie to a rugged Calabi-Yau and K3 fuzzy Kähler manifold. The result is an accurate, effective quantum gravity energy-mass relation which correctly predicts that 95.4915028% of the energy in the cosmos is the missing hypothetical dark energy. The agreement with WMAP and supernova measurements is astounding. Different theories are used by El Naschie to check the calculations and all lead to the same quantitative result. Thus the theories of varying speed of light, scale relativity, E-infinity theory, M-theory, Heterotic super strings, quantum field in curved space-time, Veneziano’s dual resonance model and Nash’s Euclidean embedding all reinforce, without any reservation, the above mentioned theoretical result of El Naschie which in turn is in total agreement with the most sophisticated cosmological measurement. Incidentally these experimental measurements and analysis were awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics to Adam Riess, Brian Schmidt, and Saul Perlmutter.
The Egyptian engineering scientist and theoretical physicist Mohamed El Naschie has found a definite resolution to the missing dark energy of the cosmos based on a revision of the theory of Relativity. Einstein’s equation of special relativity E= mc2, where m is the controversial rest mass and c is the velocity of light developed in smooth 4D space-time was transferred by El Naschie to a rugged Calabi-Yau and K3 fuzzy Kähler manifold. The result is an accurate, effective quantum gravity energy-mass relation which correctly predicts that 95.4915028% of the energy in the cosmos is the missing hypothetical dark energy. The agreement with WMAP and supernova measurements is astounding. Different theories are used by El Naschie to check the calculations and all lead to the same quantitative result. Thus the theories of varying speed of light, scale relativity, E-infinity theory, M-theory, Heterotic super strings, quantum field in curved space-time, Veneziano’s dual resonance model and Nash’s Euclidean embedding all reinforce, without any reservation, the above mentioned theoretical result of El Naschie which in turn is in total agreement with the most sophisticated cosmological measurement. Incidentally these experimental measurements and analysis were awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics to Adam Riess, Brian Schmidt, and Saul Perlmutter.
Modification of Einstein's E= mc2 to E =1/22 mc2
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
L. Marek-Crnjac
Modification of Einstein's E= mc2 to E =1/22 mc2
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2014-01-01
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http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.14
© Science Publishing Group
Bianchi Type I Bulk Viscous Barotropic Fluid Cosmological Model with Varying Λ and Functional Relation on Hubble Parameter in Self-Creation Theory of Gravitation
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.15
We have investigated Bianchi type I bulk viscous barotropic fluid cosmological model with varying Λ and functional relation on Hubble parameter in self-creation theory of gravitation. It is observed that the scalar function ϕ(t) affected the physical parameters of the universe and our model may have more than three spatial-dimensions in the beginning which is a theoretical evidence pointed out in the geometry of universe. The propose variation law for Hubble parameter leads cosmological model which is dominated by decelerating phase at initial stage and at later stage, the universe has accelerating phase and the universe expanding exponentially with acceleration supporting the observational data. Also other geometrical and physical properties of the model have been evaluated.
We have investigated Bianchi type I bulk viscous barotropic fluid cosmological model with varying Λ and functional relation on Hubble parameter in self-creation theory of gravitation. It is observed that the scalar function ϕ(t) affected the physical parameters of the universe and our model may have more than three spatial-dimensions in the beginning which is a theoretical evidence pointed out in the geometry of universe. The propose variation law for Hubble parameter leads cosmological model which is dominated by decelerating phase at initial stage and at later stage, the universe has accelerating phase and the universe expanding exponentially with acceleration supporting the observational data. Also other geometrical and physical properties of the model have been evaluated.
Bianchi Type I Bulk Viscous Barotropic Fluid Cosmological Model with Varying Λ and Functional Relation on Hubble Parameter in Self-Creation Theory of Gravitation
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Mukunda Sudam Borkar
Nilesh Kawaduji Ashtankar
Bianchi Type I Bulk Viscous Barotropic Fluid Cosmological Model with Varying Λ and Functional Relation on Hubble Parameter in Self-Creation Theory of Gravitation
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2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.15
© Science Publishing Group
Relic Streams of Photons and Neutrinos
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.12
The possible reasons of features of the nature of neutrino are discussed. The estimation of modern density of the number of neutrinos which differs from traditional calculation methods in thermodynamics is proposed. The obtained results in the order of size will be co-ordinated with calculation in thermodynamics. The explanation of the nature of small neutrino mass is offered.
The possible reasons of features of the nature of neutrino are discussed. The estimation of modern density of the number of neutrinos which differs from traditional calculation methods in thermodynamics is proposed. The obtained results in the order of size will be co-ordinated with calculation in thermodynamics. The explanation of the nature of small neutrino mass is offered.
Relic Streams of Photons and Neutrinos
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
V. P. Efrosinin
Relic Streams of Photons and Neutrinos
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130205.12
© Science Publishing Group
Effect of Nitrogen Gas Pressure and Hollow Cathode Geometry on the Luminous Intensity Emitted from Glow Discharge Plasma
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.11
The paper investigates the luminous intensity emitted from dc hollow cathode glow discharge plasma (HCGD) .The experiments were conducted at different nitrogen gas pressures ranged from (0.015 to 0.75Torr) and constant discharge current (Id=1.88 mA).The influence of both pressure and hollow cathode geometry such as diameter and depth of hollow cathode have been studied .The results show that the Photo-Luminous Efficiency emitted from the hollow cathode glow discharge decrease nearly exponentially with the increasing gas pressure. This is due to the characteristics of hollow cathode at the low pressures to produce more energetic excitation. On the other hand, the luminous efficiency increase linearly with the increasing inter-cathode distance of hollow, this is because increasing the inter - cathode distance of hollow cathode is equivalent to the decreasing of gas pressure. However the luminous intensity increase linearly with the depth of hollow cathode ranged from (1up to2.5) cm and then decrease. This behavior of the intensity with both the gas pressure and hollow cathode geometry is satisfactory agreement with previous works.
The paper investigates the luminous intensity emitted from dc hollow cathode glow discharge plasma (HCGD) .The experiments were conducted at different nitrogen gas pressures ranged from (0.015 to 0.75Torr) and constant discharge current (Id=1.88 mA).The influence of both pressure and hollow cathode geometry such as diameter and depth of hollow cathode have been studied .The results show that the Photo-Luminous Efficiency emitted from the hollow cathode glow discharge decrease nearly exponentially with the increasing gas pressure. This is due to the characteristics of hollow cathode at the low pressures to produce more energetic excitation. On the other hand, the luminous efficiency increase linearly with the increasing inter-cathode distance of hollow, this is because increasing the inter - cathode distance of hollow cathode is equivalent to the decreasing of gas pressure. However the luminous intensity increase linearly with the depth of hollow cathode ranged from (1up to2.5) cm and then decrease. This behavior of the intensity with both the gas pressure and hollow cathode geometry is satisfactory agreement with previous works.
Effect of Nitrogen Gas Pressure and Hollow Cathode Geometry on the Luminous Intensity Emitted from Glow Discharge Plasma
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Shamoo K. Awsi
Effect of Nitrogen Gas Pressure and Hollow Cathode Geometry on the Luminous Intensity Emitted from Glow Discharge Plasma
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.11
© Science Publishing Group
Physical Simulation of Space Objects’ Spectral Characteristics for Solving the Reverse Problem of their Photometry
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.12
The reverse problem of the Solar system atmosphereless body and satellite photometry is the determination of their shapes, dimensions, and reflective properties based on the observed light curves. In general, the solution of the problem is not unambiguous. To disambiguate it, the author used the physical simulation method for obtaining satellite surface spectral indicatrices. This paper describes spectral characteristics of some space object surfaces which make it possible to identify them by photometric and spectral observation results.
The reverse problem of the Solar system atmosphereless body and satellite photometry is the determination of their shapes, dimensions, and reflective properties based on the observed light curves. In general, the solution of the problem is not unambiguous. To disambiguate it, the author used the physical simulation method for obtaining satellite surface spectral indicatrices. This paper describes spectral characteristics of some space object surfaces which make it possible to identify them by photometric and spectral observation results.
Physical Simulation of Space Objects’ Spectral Characteristics for Solving the Reverse Problem of their Photometry
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Andrey K. Murtazov
Physical Simulation of Space Objects’ Spectral Characteristics for Solving the Reverse Problem of their Photometry
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2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.12
© Science Publishing Group
Numerical Study of the Electron Lateral Distribution in Atmospheric Showers of High Energy Cosmic Rays
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.13
The study of the lateral distribution of electrons in an atmospheric cascade can lead to useful conclusions on the mass and energy of the primary cosmic particle. In this work we compare the results we get from simulations by the CORSIKA program, with the theoretical NKG function expressing the lateral distribution of electrons. We then modify the original NKG function to fit better the data of the simulation. Finally, we propose this procedure as a method to approach the mass of the primary particle which started the atmospheric cascade.
The study of the lateral distribution of electrons in an atmospheric cascade can lead to useful conclusions on the mass and energy of the primary cosmic particle. In this work we compare the results we get from simulations by the CORSIKA program, with the theoretical NKG function expressing the lateral distribution of electrons. We then modify the original NKG function to fit better the data of the simulation. Finally, we propose this procedure as a method to approach the mass of the primary particle which started the atmospheric cascade.
Numerical Study of the Electron Lateral Distribution in Atmospheric Showers of High Energy Cosmic Rays
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Georgios Atreidis
Anastasios Liolios
Numerical Study of the Electron Lateral Distribution in Atmospheric Showers of High Energy Cosmic Rays
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291
291
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.13
© Science Publishing Group
Unified Field Theory
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.14
The paper "SR Equations without Constant One-Way Speed of Light" [1] brings us a century back by discussing contradictory Relativity postulates. Instead of dealing with the aether theory, this paper proposes the Unified Field Theory (UFT) that replaces both the Theory of Relativity and Theory of Aether. In this new theory, the universe exists in form of Torque Grids in which Space, Time and Energy are unified. The ideal Torque Grids have same size and String movement cycle is the same as the Grid size in all directions. When Torque Grids have different sizes, the Torque Grids have size distortions. When Torque String movement speeds are different between two opposite directions, the Torque Grids have charge distortion. Both size and charge distortion can be measured by energy. The charge distortion can be measured by electronic charge in addition to the energy. The Gravity interactions and Strong interactions are related to Torque Grids’ size distortions. The electron-magnetic interactions and weak interactions are related to charge distortions. The Unified Field Theory derives the Planck equation and Newton’s gravity equation and explains why the electron is stable. The electron has a single Torque Grid distortion on its shell and is in resonance with its wavelength. Therefore, electron is stable and electronic field is formed. Strong force and weak force are result of two additional main resonance wave forms on the shell of the electron. Finally, the paper unifies the four fundamental fields.
The paper "SR Equations without Constant One-Way Speed of Light" [1] brings us a century back by discussing contradictory Relativity postulates. Instead of dealing with the aether theory, this paper proposes the Unified Field Theory (UFT) that replaces both the Theory of Relativity and Theory of Aether. In this new theory, the universe exists in form of Torque Grids in which Space, Time and Energy are unified. The ideal Torque Grids have same size and String movement cycle is the same as the Grid size in all directions. When Torque Grids have different sizes, the Torque Grids have size distortions. When Torque String movement speeds are different between two opposite directions, the Torque Grids have charge distortion. Both size and charge distortion can be measured by energy. The charge distortion can be measured by electronic charge in addition to the energy. The Gravity interactions and Strong interactions are related to Torque Grids’ size distortions. The electron-magnetic interactions and weak interactions are related to charge distortions. The Unified Field Theory derives the Planck equation and Newton’s gravity equation and explains why the electron is stable. The electron has a single Torque Grid distortion on its shell and is in resonance with its wavelength. Therefore, electron is stable and electronic field is formed. Strong force and weak force are result of two additional main resonance wave forms on the shell of the electron. Finally, the paper unifies the four fundamental fields.
Unified Field Theory
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Zhiliang Cao
Henry Gu Cao
Unified Field Theory
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.14
© Science Publishing Group
Physics of Hypercumulative Plasma Jet Formation by Ablatively-Driven Implosion of Hollow Cones
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.15
In this letter we suggest a new approach to the physical principles for hypercumulative plasma jet formation. This new approach leads to several new results which are of fundamental importance. The simulation results of hypercumulative plasma jet are discussed. It has been shown that the increase of the plasma jet speed in the suggested configuration is 25-30% and the increase of jet pulse is more than 90 times which are not achievable in the classical cumulation.
In this letter we suggest a new approach to the physical principles for hypercumulative plasma jet formation. This new approach leads to several new results which are of fundamental importance. The simulation results of hypercumulative plasma jet are discussed. It has been shown that the increase of the plasma jet speed in the suggested configuration is 25-30% and the increase of jet pulse is more than 90 times which are not achievable in the classical cumulation.
Physics of Hypercumulative Plasma Jet Formation by Ablatively-Driven Implosion of Hollow Cones
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Vladilen F. Minin
Igor V. Minin
Oleg V. Minin
Physics of Hypercumulative Plasma Jet Formation by Ablatively-Driven Implosion of Hollow Cones
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302
302
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.15
© Science Publishing Group
Experimentally Based Theoretical Arguments that Unruh’s Temperature, Hawking’s Vacuum Fluctuation and Rindler’s Wedge Are Physically Real
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.23
The objective of the present paper is to argue that based on the reality of the observed increased rate of cosmic expansion, Unruh’s temperature, Hawking’s negative vacuum energy and Rindler’s wedge must also be a physical reality. We present first a brief derivation of the missing dark energy density of the universe which is in absolute agreement with the most recent accurate cosmological measurements and observations. The derivation is based upon a Rindler space setting, the associated wedge horizon and Unruh temperature. That way the topological ordinary energy is found to be half of the topological Unruh fluctuation mass m(O) = φ3 multiplied with the square of the topological speed of light c2 = φ2 where φ = 2 /(√5+ 1). This is exactly equal to the area of the spear-like hyperbolic triangular part of the Rindler wedge. The corresponding physical ordinary energy density is thus E(O) = (1/2)( φ3)( φ2) mc2 = (φ5/2)( mc2), where φ5 is Hardy’s probability of quantum entanglement. The topological dark energy density on the other hand is equal half of the topological Kaluza-Klein five dimensional mass m(D) = 5 multiplied with c2 = φ2. This in turn is exactly equal to the circular segment part of the wedge which together with the hyperbolic triangular entangled area forms the complete Lorentzian invariant triangular area of the wedge. Consequently the physical dark energy density which is uncorrelated, i.e. disentangled is given by E(D) = (1/2)(5)( φ2)( mc2) = (5 φ2 /2)( mc2) in full agreement with observation. Adding E(O) and E(D) one finds E(Einstein) = mc2 in full agreement with all our previous derivations. From the above we argue that since measurements, observations and theory have shown the increased expansion to be real and because the present derivation of the same results is based on Rindler’s space and Unruh’s temperature, it follows as a logical necessity that Unruh’s temperature, Hawking’s fluctuation and Rindler’s wedge are all physically real and can be measured, at least in principle.
The objective of the present paper is to argue that based on the reality of the observed increased rate of cosmic expansion, Unruh’s temperature, Hawking’s negative vacuum energy and Rindler’s wedge must also be a physical reality. We present first a brief derivation of the missing dark energy density of the universe which is in absolute agreement with the most recent accurate cosmological measurements and observations. The derivation is based upon a Rindler space setting, the associated wedge horizon and Unruh temperature. That way the topological ordinary energy is found to be half of the topological Unruh fluctuation mass m(O) = φ3 multiplied with the square of the topological speed of light c2 = φ2 where φ = 2 /(√5+ 1). This is exactly equal to the area of the spear-like hyperbolic triangular part of the Rindler wedge. The corresponding physical ordinary energy density is thus E(O) = (1/2)( φ3)( φ2) mc2 = (φ5/2)( mc2), where φ5 is Hardy’s probability of quantum entanglement. The topological dark energy density on the other hand is equal half of the topological Kaluza-Klein five dimensional mass m(D) = 5 multiplied with c2 = φ2. This in turn is exactly equal to the circular segment part of the wedge which together with the hyperbolic triangular entangled area forms the complete Lorentzian invariant triangular area of the wedge. Consequently the physical dark energy density which is uncorrelated, i.e. disentangled is given by E(D) = (1/2)(5)( φ2)( mc2) = (5 φ2 /2)( mc2) in full agreement with observation. Adding E(O) and E(D) one finds E(Einstein) = mc2 in full agreement with all our previous derivations. From the above we argue that since measurements, observations and theory have shown the increased expansion to be real and because the present derivation of the same results is based on Rindler’s space and Unruh’s temperature, it follows as a logical necessity that Unruh’s temperature, Hawking’s fluctuation and Rindler’s wedge are all physically real and can be measured, at least in principle.
Experimentally Based Theoretical Arguments that Unruh’s Temperature, Hawking’s Vacuum Fluctuation and Rindler’s Wedge Are Physically Real
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.23
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Mohamed S. El Naschie
Experimentally Based Theoretical Arguments that Unruh’s Temperature, Hawking’s Vacuum Fluctuation and Rindler’s Wedge Are Physically Real
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361
361
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.23
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.23
© Science Publishing Group
Interpretation of the Evolution of Universe through the Consciousness Model
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.16
We showed the evolution of universe from void through our consciousness model incorporating Thought-carrying particle (TCP), Thought-retaining particle (TRP) and Thought Force (TF) in order to develop a general theory for the unification of physics which would be freely applicable to the more general situations involving both the inanimate and animate having consciousness. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy of the TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same . The same is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo.
We showed the evolution of universe from void through our consciousness model incorporating Thought-carrying particle (TCP), Thought-retaining particle (TRP) and Thought Force (TF) in order to develop a general theory for the unification of physics which would be freely applicable to the more general situations involving both the inanimate and animate having consciousness. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy of the TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same . The same is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo.
Interpretation of the Evolution of Universe through the Consciousness Model
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
Interpretation of the Evolution of Universe through the Consciousness Model
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2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.16
© Science Publishing Group
Sense of Time and Interpretation of the Evolution of Time
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.17
Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind. This universal mind (UM) is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT)of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Time of any kind cannot exist without the existence of consciousness. Time without consciousness is not possible. But consciousness without time is possible. The manifestation of any type of time is solely dependent on the manifestation of consciousness. There is no manifestation of ‘time’ unless there is the generation of consciousness [=εT = mT c^2=hc/λT (where mT = quantized mass of the TCP, c= free- space velocity of light, h = Planck’s quantum constant, λT = wavelength of the TCP)]. The origin of the physical time appears to be the origin of evolution of light and its evolved velocity (c) at that point of the beginning of universe. [This c is related with consciousness (=εT ) as shown here: εT = mT c^2=hc/λT].
Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind. This universal mind (UM) is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT)of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Time of any kind cannot exist without the existence of consciousness. Time without consciousness is not possible. But consciousness without time is possible. The manifestation of any type of time is solely dependent on the manifestation of consciousness. There is no manifestation of ‘time’ unless there is the generation of consciousness [=εT = mT c^2=hc/λT (where mT = quantized mass of the TCP, c= free- space velocity of light, h = Planck’s quantum constant, λT = wavelength of the TCP)]. The origin of the physical time appears to be the origin of evolution of light and its evolved velocity (c) at that point of the beginning of universe. [This c is related with consciousness (=εT ) as shown here: εT = mT c^2=hc/λT].
Sense of Time and Interpretation of the Evolution of Time
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.17
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
Sense of Time and Interpretation of the Evolution of Time
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6
321
321
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.17
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.17
© Science Publishing Group
Possible Bridging the Classical Physics and Quantum Physics through Consciousness
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.18
Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind. This universal mind (UM) is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. ThisεT (i.e. universal consciousness) is found to form a possible gross bridge between the classical physics and quantum physics.
Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind. This universal mind (UM) is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. ThisεT (i.e. universal consciousness) is found to form a possible gross bridge between the classical physics and quantum physics.
Possible Bridging the Classical Physics and Quantum Physics through Consciousness
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.18
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
Possible Bridging the Classical Physics and Quantum Physics through Consciousness
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329
329
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.18
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.18
© Science Publishing Group
Developing an Equation to Compute the Wavelength (λg) and Quantized Energy (Eg) of Elusive Graviton
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.19
Graviton, the carrier of gravitational force, has remained as ever elusive to the physicists till today. But the graviton has a relation with theεT, the quantized energy of thought-carrying particle. This εT can be correlated with the Planck system of units like Ep (Planck energy), mp (Planck mass), λp (Planck length) andτp (Planck time). The same εT can also be correlated with the wavelength (λg) as well as the quantized energy (Eg)of the graviton liberated from a body of mass m.
Graviton, the carrier of gravitational force, has remained as ever elusive to the physicists till today. But the graviton has a relation with theεT, the quantized energy of thought-carrying particle. This εT can be correlated with the Planck system of units like Ep (Planck energy), mp (Planck mass), λp (Planck length) andτp (Planck time). The same εT can also be correlated with the wavelength (λg) as well as the quantized energy (Eg)of the graviton liberated from a body of mass m.
Developing an Equation to Compute the Wavelength (λg) and Quantized Energy (Eg) of Elusive Graviton
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.19
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
Developing an Equation to Compute the Wavelength (λg) and Quantized Energy (Eg) of Elusive Graviton
2
6
333
333
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.19
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.19
© Science Publishing Group
Assumptions of Metric Variable-Type in Bell’s Theorem
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.22
An analysis of both the original and the CHSH Bell inequalities is presented. Two additional mathematical assumptions are identified in the theorem. These are: all variables in the inequalities have a field algebraic structure, and all variables have measurability as a mathematical property. This means the variables are of metric-type, mathematically indistinguishable from those of classical theories. The consequences of attributing the violation of Bell’s theorem to these assumptions are examined.
An analysis of both the original and the CHSH Bell inequalities is presented. Two additional mathematical assumptions are identified in the theorem. These are: all variables in the inequalities have a field algebraic structure, and all variables have measurability as a mathematical property. This means the variables are of metric-type, mathematically indistinguishable from those of classical theories. The consequences of attributing the violation of Bell’s theorem to these assumptions are examined.
Assumptions of Metric Variable-Type in Bell’s Theorem
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.22
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Fosco Ruzzene
Assumptions of Metric Variable-Type in Bell’s Theorem
2
6
356
356
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.22
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.22
© Science Publishing Group
Magnetic Interactions in the Energy Operator Matrix of Configurations with s and i Electrons in External Shells
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.20
In the energy operator matrix of four-level configurations with s and i -electrons in external shells, we take into account the following magnetic interactions: spin-other-orbit, spin-spin, and orbit-orbit interactions. The calculation of matrix elements is done in the uncoupled moments representation with subsequent translation (passage) to the LSJM- representation. Comparison with independent calculations in LSJM-representation for and configurations is done. The method of calculation in electronic configuration is extended to the holes configurations i^25 s As results the energy operator matrix is complemented with new physical conditions on radial integrals of Marvin’s spin interactions, which permits to ameliorate the precision of future calculations of fine structure parameters by semi-empirical methods.
In the energy operator matrix of four-level configurations with s and i -electrons in external shells, we take into account the following magnetic interactions: spin-other-orbit, spin-spin, and orbit-orbit interactions. The calculation of matrix elements is done in the uncoupled moments representation with subsequent translation (passage) to the LSJM- representation. Comparison with independent calculations in LSJM-representation for and configurations is done. The method of calculation in electronic configuration is extended to the holes configurations i^25 s As results the energy operator matrix is complemented with new physical conditions on radial integrals of Marvin’s spin interactions, which permits to ameliorate the precision of future calculations of fine structure parameters by semi-empirical methods.
Magnetic Interactions in the Energy Operator Matrix of Configurations with s and i Electrons in External Shells
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.20
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Galina Pavlovna Anisimova
Olga Aleksandrovna Dolmatova
Anna Petrovna Gorbenko
Martin Tchoffo
Magnetic Interactions in the Energy Operator Matrix of Configurations with s and i Electrons in External Shells
2
6
340
340
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.20
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.20
© Science Publishing Group
Interpretation of Information Processing and Mode of Perception Through the Consciousness Model Involving Though-Carrying Particle (TCP), Thought Retaining Particle (TRP) and Thought Force (TF) in vitro and Thought Force (TF) in vivo
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.21
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind. This universal mind (UM) is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo play significant roles in information processing and mode of perception. The information is coming from the UM through TCP and TRP in biological systems.
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind. This universal mind (UM) is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo play significant roles in information processing and mode of perception. The information is coming from the UM through TCP and TRP in biological systems.
Interpretation of Information Processing and Mode of Perception Through the Consciousness Model Involving Though-Carrying Particle (TCP), Thought Retaining Particle (TRP) and Thought Force (TF) in vitro and Thought Force (TF) in vivo
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.21
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
Interpretation of Information Processing and Mode of Perception Through the Consciousness Model Involving Though-Carrying Particle (TCP), Thought Retaining Particle (TRP) and Thought Force (TF) in vitro and Thought Force (TF) in vivo
2
6
349
349
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.21
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.21
© Science Publishing Group
The Higgs Mechanism and the First Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.29
The role of the Higgs mechanism in the Standard Model of elementary particles is discussed. The first experiments provided by means of the Large Hadron Collider are discussed as well.
The role of the Higgs mechanism in the Standard Model of elementary particles is discussed. The first experiments provided by means of the Large Hadron Collider are discussed as well.
The Higgs Mechanism and the First Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.29
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
V. P. Efrosinin
The Higgs Mechanism and the First Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider
2
6
419
419
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.29
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.29
© Science Publishing Group
Theoretical Characteristics of Though-Carrying Particle (TCP) and Thought Retaining Particle (TRP) Are Necessary for Providing Plausible Possible Answers to the Typical Specific Questions Raised by Different Learned Reviewers
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.24
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Any matter as well as any individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo and these TCP and TRP are originated from the same Void. We showed the existence of thought force in microcosm [TF (micro)] and thought force in macrocosm [TF (macro)]. This TF (micro) is theoretically found to be stronger than the strong nuclear force. TF (macro) is theoretically found to be weaker even than the gravitational force. Theoretical characteristics of TCP and TRP can provide possible answers to many typical questions.
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Any matter as well as any individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo and these TCP and TRP are originated from the same Void. We showed the existence of thought force in microcosm [TF (micro)] and thought force in macrocosm [TF (macro)]. This TF (micro) is theoretically found to be stronger than the strong nuclear force. TF (macro) is theoretically found to be weaker even than the gravitational force. Theoretical characteristics of TCP and TRP can provide possible answers to many typical questions.
Theoretical Characteristics of Though-Carrying Particle (TCP) and Thought Retaining Particle (TRP) Are Necessary for Providing Plausible Possible Answers to the Typical Specific Questions Raised by Different Learned Reviewers
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.24
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
Theoretical Characteristics of Though-Carrying Particle (TCP) and Thought Retaining Particle (TRP) Are Necessary for Providing Plausible Possible Answers to the Typical Specific Questions Raised by Different Learned Reviewers
2
6
374
374
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.24
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.24
© Science Publishing Group
Special Theory of Relativity Postulated on Homogeneity of Space and Time and on Relativity Principle
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.25
In Special Theory of Relativity time is considered to be the 4th dimension of space – time as a consequence of Lorentz invariance and Minkowski metric, in turn based on the invariance of light speed . In this paper we’ll show that, starting only from universal postulates as homogeneity of space and time and Principle of Relativity, we can obtain space and time transformations (as the Lorentz and Tangherlini – Selleri ones) characterized by an invariant speed generally different than . These results determine crucial difficulties in the assumption of Minkowski metric and consequently in the interpretation of physical time as the 4th component of space – time, also introducing a “relativity” feature in the velocity of light in vacuum being no longer considerable as a necessarily universal invariant quantity and depending on the physical properties of space which originate from quantum vacuum. A novel interpretation of time, coherent with these results, defined as duration of material change in space, i.e. motion, is finally proposed.
In Special Theory of Relativity time is considered to be the 4th dimension of space – time as a consequence of Lorentz invariance and Minkowski metric, in turn based on the invariance of light speed . In this paper we’ll show that, starting only from universal postulates as homogeneity of space and time and Principle of Relativity, we can obtain space and time transformations (as the Lorentz and Tangherlini – Selleri ones) characterized by an invariant speed generally different than . These results determine crucial difficulties in the assumption of Minkowski metric and consequently in the interpretation of physical time as the 4th component of space – time, also introducing a “relativity” feature in the velocity of light in vacuum being no longer considerable as a necessarily universal invariant quantity and depending on the physical properties of space which originate from quantum vacuum. A novel interpretation of time, coherent with these results, defined as duration of material change in space, i.e. motion, is finally proposed.
Special Theory of Relativity Postulated on Homogeneity of Space and Time and on Relativity Principle
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.25
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Luigi Maxmilian Caligiuri
Amrit Sorli
Special Theory of Relativity Postulated on Homogeneity of Space and Time and on Relativity Principle
2
6
382
382
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.25
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.25
© Science Publishing Group
The Mental Impression and the Doctrine of Reincarnation Leading to the Characteristic Hereditary Transmissions through the Consciousness Model
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.27
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo can address the meaning of mental impression and the doctrine of reincarnation leading to the characteristic hereditary transmissions.
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo can address the meaning of mental impression and the doctrine of reincarnation leading to the characteristic hereditary transmissions.
The Mental Impression and the Doctrine of Reincarnation Leading to the Characteristic Hereditary Transmissions through the Consciousness Model
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.27
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
The Mental Impression and the Doctrine of Reincarnation Leading to the Characteristic Hereditary Transmissions through the Consciousness Model
2
6
401
401
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.27
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.27
© Science Publishing Group
The Healing Power of Mind and Theoretical Approach to Develop a So-Called Panacea through the Consciousness Model
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.28
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Any matter as well as any individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo and these TCP and TRP are originated from the same Void. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo play significant roles in understanding the healing power of mind. The consciousness model involving the TCP, TRP and TF (thought force) may provide guidelines to develop a panacea through the utilization of the universal power of ‘vital living force’ (called ‘Prâna’, the Indian concept of ‘life energies’).
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Any matter as well as any individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo and these TCP and TRP are originated from the same Void. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo play significant roles in understanding the healing power of mind. The consciousness model involving the TCP, TRP and TF (thought force) may provide guidelines to develop a panacea through the utilization of the universal power of ‘vital living force’ (called ‘Prâna’, the Indian concept of ‘life energies’).
The Healing Power of Mind and Theoretical Approach to Develop a So-Called Panacea through the Consciousness Model
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.28
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
The Healing Power of Mind and Theoretical Approach to Develop a So-Called Panacea through the Consciousness Model
2
6
416
416
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.28
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.28
© Science Publishing Group
Universal Propulsion Harnessing the Global Anisotropy of the Physical Space
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.26
A simple electro-mechanical device is shown to harness the global anisotropy of the physical space in order to generate a traction force having an universal character because it doesn’t involve the exchange of momentum either with any contact surface or conventional medium such as water or air, or any ordinary ejected substance such as exhaust gases or ionized particles, but with the physical space meant as a physical object filled generally with “cold” and locally with “warm” dark matter. The new force of nature investigated in this article is predicted by the non-gauge cosmological physical theory of “byuon”. This theory is based upon very few basic axioms, among which the marginal global anisotropy of the physical space caused by the existence of a cosmological vector potential Ag having coordinates in the second equatorial coordinate system as follows: right ascension α=300°±10°, declination δ=36°±10°. The new predicted force was experimentally studied during about 30 years as well as was revealed as the primary cause of changes in the decay rate of radioactive elements and for a wide variety of astrophysical and geophysical phenomena. The new force is as well predicted to be generally anisotropic, repulsive, non-local and non-linear; its existence is further proved in this article as well as its exploitability to move objects in any medium is demonstrated by means of few prototypes of the new concept thruster. Results collected during 2012-2013 do suggest that values of specific power as low as 330 W/N can be practical, i.e. about 40 times smaller than the best corresponding figures of electric propulsion thrusters used to move satellites and spacecrafts, suggesting the possibility of important developments for the propulsion of space vehicles.
A simple electro-mechanical device is shown to harness the global anisotropy of the physical space in order to generate a traction force having an universal character because it doesn’t involve the exchange of momentum either with any contact surface or conventional medium such as water or air, or any ordinary ejected substance such as exhaust gases or ionized particles, but with the physical space meant as a physical object filled generally with “cold” and locally with “warm” dark matter. The new force of nature investigated in this article is predicted by the non-gauge cosmological physical theory of “byuon”. This theory is based upon very few basic axioms, among which the marginal global anisotropy of the physical space caused by the existence of a cosmological vector potential Ag having coordinates in the second equatorial coordinate system as follows: right ascension α=300°±10°, declination δ=36°±10°. The new predicted force was experimentally studied during about 30 years as well as was revealed as the primary cause of changes in the decay rate of radioactive elements and for a wide variety of astrophysical and geophysical phenomena. The new force is as well predicted to be generally anisotropic, repulsive, non-local and non-linear; its existence is further proved in this article as well as its exploitability to move objects in any medium is demonstrated by means of few prototypes of the new concept thruster. Results collected during 2012-2013 do suggest that values of specific power as low as 330 W/N can be practical, i.e. about 40 times smaller than the best corresponding figures of electric propulsion thrusters used to move satellites and spacecrafts, suggesting the possibility of important developments for the propulsion of space vehicles.
Universal Propulsion Harnessing the Global Anisotropy of the Physical Space
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.26
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Yuriy Alexeevich Baurov
Lorenzo Albanese
Francesco Meneguzzo
Valeriy Aleksandrovich Menshikov
Universal Propulsion Harnessing the Global Anisotropy of the Physical Space
2
6
391
391
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.26
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.26
© Science Publishing Group
Investigation of Positron Annihilation Diffusion Length in Gallium Nitride
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.15
A number of authors reported values for positron diffusion length in Gallium nitride less than 60 nm where the expected values in semiconductors are in the range of 200 nm to 300 nm. As these values are usually obtained from fitting a theoretical diffusion model to experimental Doppler broadening results, a possibility of fitting errors exist. In this study, positron annihilation experimental results for two MBE Gallium nitride samples are used to determine diffusion length. Several models are examined and fitted to the data in order to find reasons behind such short values. The study concluded to rule out errors in theoretical fittings, confirmed the shortness and owed the shortness to trapping of positrons by line defects which have high density in this material.
A number of authors reported values for positron diffusion length in Gallium nitride less than 60 nm where the expected values in semiconductors are in the range of 200 nm to 300 nm. As these values are usually obtained from fitting a theoretical diffusion model to experimental Doppler broadening results, a possibility of fitting errors exist. In this study, positron annihilation experimental results for two MBE Gallium nitride samples are used to determine diffusion length. Several models are examined and fitted to the data in order to find reasons behind such short values. The study concluded to rule out errors in theoretical fittings, confirmed the shortness and owed the shortness to trapping of positrons by line defects which have high density in this material.
Investigation of Positron Annihilation Diffusion Length in Gallium Nitride
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Abdulnasser Sagr Saleh
Awla Moftah Elhasi
Investigation of Positron Annihilation Diffusion Length in Gallium Nitride
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2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.15
© Science Publishing Group
Development of a Thyroid Shield with Recycled Material for Use in Dental Radiology
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.14
Due to the great importance of radiation protection in dental services, in this work we aim to develop a thyroid shield from reusing lead foils contained in dental periapical radiographic films. To manufacture the thyroid shield, 300 lead foils contained in intraoral film packets were collected in dental offices in the city of Marabá, in Para State, Brazil, and reused for made the shield. It was observed that this shield made from recycled material is as effective in radiation shielding as those already on the market. The methodology presented here for the manufacture of thyroid shield is simple, effective, and inexpensive. This personal protective equipment constructed from recycled material is as effective as those already on the market, although it is still necessary to evaluate the new thyroid shield with more comprehensive testing
Due to the great importance of radiation protection in dental services, in this work we aim to develop a thyroid shield from reusing lead foils contained in dental periapical radiographic films. To manufacture the thyroid shield, 300 lead foils contained in intraoral film packets were collected in dental offices in the city of Marabá, in Para State, Brazil, and reused for made the shield. It was observed that this shield made from recycled material is as effective in radiation shielding as those already on the market. The methodology presented here for the manufacture of thyroid shield is simple, effective, and inexpensive. This personal protective equipment constructed from recycled material is as effective as those already on the market, although it is still necessary to evaluate the new thyroid shield with more comprehensive testing
Development of a Thyroid Shield with Recycled Material for Use in Dental Radiology
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Osmar Machado de Sousa
Fernanda Carla Lima Ferreira
Cinthia Marques Magalhães Paschoal
Leandro Xavier Cardoso
Divanízia do Nascimento Souza
Development of a Thyroid Shield with Recycled Material for Use in Dental Radiology
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23
23
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.14
© Science Publishing Group
The Relationship between Consciousness and Vital Living Force through the Consciousness Model
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.11
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo provide guidelines to form a relationship between consciousness and vital living force.
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo provide guidelines to form a relationship between consciousness and vital living force.
The Relationship between Consciousness and Vital Living Force through the Consciousness Model
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
The Relationship between Consciousness and Vital Living Force through the Consciousness Model
3
1
7
7
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.11
© Science Publishing Group
Siva’s Theory of Quantum Gravity
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.13
With the help of ‘space time fluid’ concept and ‘Siva’s equation for space time & matter’ it is concluded that the space time fluid density of a mass varies with distance from its centre. Not only that ,space time density of any mass exists in its space time fluid vicinity will also be affected . An equation has been derived to explain the concept. Conceptual analysis of this equation concluded a new model of quantum gravity showing that the space time fluid which plays a major role in creating gravity effect and is quantized. There will be quantized energy levels of space time fluid around a mass. Their energy distribution depends on the distance from the mass. Particles with mass exist in a specific energy level only. If the energy level is not suitable to its mass, that particle will have a tendency to move either to lower level or higher level. And at the same time when a particle jumps from higher energy level to lower energy level, it loses energy and if it moves from lower to higher level it absorbs energy. This is similar to Bohr’s atomic theory.
With the help of ‘space time fluid’ concept and ‘Siva’s equation for space time & matter’ it is concluded that the space time fluid density of a mass varies with distance from its centre. Not only that ,space time density of any mass exists in its space time fluid vicinity will also be affected . An equation has been derived to explain the concept. Conceptual analysis of this equation concluded a new model of quantum gravity showing that the space time fluid which plays a major role in creating gravity effect and is quantized. There will be quantized energy levels of space time fluid around a mass. Their energy distribution depends on the distance from the mass. Particles with mass exist in a specific energy level only. If the energy level is not suitable to its mass, that particle will have a tendency to move either to lower level or higher level. And at the same time when a particle jumps from higher energy level to lower energy level, it loses energy and if it moves from lower to higher level it absorbs energy. This is similar to Bohr’s atomic theory.
Siva’s Theory of Quantum Gravity
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Siva Prasad Kodukula
Siva’s Theory of Quantum Gravity
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1
19
19
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.13
© Science Publishing Group
The Observed Change in the Value of ‘Fine Structure Constant’ can be Interpreted through the Consciousness Model
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.12
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. The consciousness model involving the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP, TRP and thought force may provide guidelines to interpret the observed change in the value of ‘fine structure constant’.
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. The consciousness model involving the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP, TRP and thought force may provide guidelines to interpret the observed change in the value of ‘fine structure constant’.
The Observed Change in the Value of ‘Fine Structure Constant’ can be Interpreted through the Consciousness Model
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
The Observed Change in the Value of ‘Fine Structure Constant’ can be Interpreted through the Consciousness Model
3
1
15
15
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140301.12
© Science Publishing Group
Evaluation of Road Traffic Noise Pollution in Quetta (Pakistan)
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.11
Pakistan, like other developing countries, is facing the growing problem of traffic noise pollution of the modern world. It is a notable problem of urban areas of the country including Quetta city. The basic cause of this problem is the tremendous increase in traffic volume and lack of proper town planning. This study is the first proper attempt to evaluate the traffic noise level in Quetta city. To estimate the level of road traffic noise, the technique employed is a “regular grid over a map” . This technique generated 60 observation locations across the city covering almost the whole city. The different zones are classified on the standards of US Department of Housing and Urban Development. The measuring points generated so have been divided into four categories depending upon the activities carried out in that region. It is observed that mixed area i.e. “commercial and residential” are at high risk, where the Lmax is 93.1 dB and the statistical analysis reveals the fact that the 77.1 % of the locations in residential areas are higher than the standards set by the local authority. Noise map is also designed for future use and the better understanding of the traffic noise in Quetta city. It is observed that most of the population of the city is significantly exposed to the high noise level due to the unmitigated traffic noise.
Pakistan, like other developing countries, is facing the growing problem of traffic noise pollution of the modern world. It is a notable problem of urban areas of the country including Quetta city. The basic cause of this problem is the tremendous increase in traffic volume and lack of proper town planning. This study is the first proper attempt to evaluate the traffic noise level in Quetta city. To estimate the level of road traffic noise, the technique employed is a “regular grid over a map” . This technique generated 60 observation locations across the city covering almost the whole city. The different zones are classified on the standards of US Department of Housing and Urban Development. The measuring points generated so have been divided into four categories depending upon the activities carried out in that region. It is observed that mixed area i.e. “commercial and residential” are at high risk, where the Lmax is 93.1 dB and the statistical analysis reveals the fact that the 77.1 % of the locations in residential areas are higher than the standards set by the local authority. Noise map is also designed for future use and the better understanding of the traffic noise in Quetta city. It is observed that most of the population of the city is significantly exposed to the high noise level due to the unmitigated traffic noise.
Evaluation of Road Traffic Noise Pollution in Quetta (Pakistan)
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
H. U. khan
Syed Imran Ali
Evaluation of Road Traffic Noise Pollution in Quetta (Pakistan)
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2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.11
© Science Publishing Group
Enhancement of Thermoelectric Effects in a Single Molecular Magnet due to Resonance Tunnelling
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.12
Thermoelectric properties of the single molecular magnet coupled to two metal electrodes are investigated theoretically. For the infinite Coulomb interaction the singly-occupied states determine the effective transport channels. At the low temperature the thermopower and the figure of merit present the large values near bonding state level, and for the given temperature the thermopower and the figure of merit are significantly enhanced with coupling intensity decreasing. When Coulomb interaction is finite, the spectra of thermoelectric quantities split into two sets. The peaks of the thermopower and figure of merit corresponding to doubly-occupied transport channels are much larger than unity for the small coupling intensity. These results are useful for understanding and designing highly efficient thermoelectric devices based on molecular magnet.
Thermoelectric properties of the single molecular magnet coupled to two metal electrodes are investigated theoretically. For the infinite Coulomb interaction the singly-occupied states determine the effective transport channels. At the low temperature the thermopower and the figure of merit present the large values near bonding state level, and for the given temperature the thermopower and the figure of merit are significantly enhanced with coupling intensity decreasing. When Coulomb interaction is finite, the spectra of thermoelectric quantities split into two sets. The peaks of the thermopower and figure of merit corresponding to doubly-occupied transport channels are much larger than unity for the small coupling intensity. These results are useful for understanding and designing highly efficient thermoelectric devices based on molecular magnet.
Enhancement of Thermoelectric Effects in a Single Molecular Magnet due to Resonance Tunnelling
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Jian-Hua Wang
Wei-Ping Xu
Yu-Ying Zhang
Yi-Hang Nie
Enhancement of Thermoelectric Effects in a Single Molecular Magnet due to Resonance Tunnelling
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44
44
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.12
© Science Publishing Group
Optical, Morphological and Electrical Properties of Silver and Aluminium Metallization Contacts for Solar Cells
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.13
A lower resistivity and better spectra selectivity is a measurement of the quality and potential use of silver Ag and aluminium Al metals for the application as metallization contacts for solar cells. Aluminium (Al) and silver (Ag) thin films deposited by thermal evaporation at room temperature were dense with small grain sizes, and maintained a high value of reflectance (in the spectral range from 300 to 3200 nm) with annealing at 300 °C in an argon atmosphere. Experimental results indicate that the surface roughness is increased while the film’s resistivities are reduced. It was also found that the surface roughness and work function of metal films are very important to enhance the stability and efficiency of electrode thin films used for solar cells.
A lower resistivity and better spectra selectivity is a measurement of the quality and potential use of silver Ag and aluminium Al metals for the application as metallization contacts for solar cells. Aluminium (Al) and silver (Ag) thin films deposited by thermal evaporation at room temperature were dense with small grain sizes, and maintained a high value of reflectance (in the spectral range from 300 to 3200 nm) with annealing at 300 °C in an argon atmosphere. Experimental results indicate that the surface roughness is increased while the film’s resistivities are reduced. It was also found that the surface roughness and work function of metal films are very important to enhance the stability and efficiency of electrode thin films used for solar cells.
Optical, Morphological and Electrical Properties of Silver and Aluminium Metallization Contacts for Solar Cells
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Zakia Fekkai
Nazir Mustapha
Ali Hennache
Optical, Morphological and Electrical Properties of Silver and Aluminium Metallization Contacts for Solar Cells
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50
50
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.13
© Science Publishing Group
Relativistic Energy and Mass Originate from Homogeneity of Space and Time and from Quantum Vacuum Energy Density
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.14
In a previous paper we have shown it is possible to build alternative versions of Special Theory of Relativity only considering homogeneity of space, of time and Relative Principle without invoking the postulate of invariance of light velocity in all the inertial frames. Within these alternatives, space and time transformations different than the Lorentz ones like, in particular, the Selleri inertial transformations, are possible. This has many important consequences as, for example, the need for the distinction between physical time as duration of change in space and mathematical time as a parameter quantifying this change as well as the anisotropy of one-way velocity of light. These results require a reformulation and a new understanding of relativistic energy and mass. In this paper we'll firstly show that, using only classical laws of Newtonian mechanics, classical electrodynamics and fundamental physical principles of homogeneity of space and time without referring to Theory of Relativity at all, it is possible to derive the correct form of fundamental equation E。= mc2, the relativistic energy and momentum of a free particle in a preferred inertial frame. This makes relativistic energy and mass to assume a realistic physical meaning and an unambiguous definition only when referred to this preferred inertial frame identified by inertial transformations. This special universal meaning of energy, not recognized by standard Theory of Relativity, in which relativistic energy can assume different and independent values in all the possible infinite inertial frames, appears to be related to the fundamental invariance properties of space itself on which inertial transformations are based. In order to explain the origin of relativistic energy and mass, a novel physical model, also coherent with experimental results, has been then proposed. According to our model, mass could be considered as a conventional view of more fundamental properties of space emerging from a quantum vacuum, ruled by the Planck metric, in which the most fundamental physical entity is represented by energy density. In this picture relativistic mass and energy are coherently expressed as a measure of the diminished energy density of quantum vacuum.
In a previous paper we have shown it is possible to build alternative versions of Special Theory of Relativity only considering homogeneity of space, of time and Relative Principle without invoking the postulate of invariance of light velocity in all the inertial frames. Within these alternatives, space and time transformations different than the Lorentz ones like, in particular, the Selleri inertial transformations, are possible. This has many important consequences as, for example, the need for the distinction between physical time as duration of change in space and mathematical time as a parameter quantifying this change as well as the anisotropy of one-way velocity of light. These results require a reformulation and a new understanding of relativistic energy and mass. In this paper we'll firstly show that, using only classical laws of Newtonian mechanics, classical electrodynamics and fundamental physical principles of homogeneity of space and time without referring to Theory of Relativity at all, it is possible to derive the correct form of fundamental equation E。= mc2, the relativistic energy and momentum of a free particle in a preferred inertial frame. This makes relativistic energy and mass to assume a realistic physical meaning and an unambiguous definition only when referred to this preferred inertial frame identified by inertial transformations. This special universal meaning of energy, not recognized by standard Theory of Relativity, in which relativistic energy can assume different and independent values in all the possible infinite inertial frames, appears to be related to the fundamental invariance properties of space itself on which inertial transformations are based. In order to explain the origin of relativistic energy and mass, a novel physical model, also coherent with experimental results, has been then proposed. According to our model, mass could be considered as a conventional view of more fundamental properties of space emerging from a quantum vacuum, ruled by the Planck metric, in which the most fundamental physical entity is represented by energy density. In this picture relativistic mass and energy are coherently expressed as a measure of the diminished energy density of quantum vacuum.
Relativistic Energy and Mass Originate from Homogeneity of Space and Time and from Quantum Vacuum Energy Density
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Luigi Maxmilian Caligiuri
Amrit Sorli
Relativistic Energy and Mass Originate from Homogeneity of Space and Time and from Quantum Vacuum Energy Density
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59
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.14
© Science Publishing Group
Mental Time Travel is Possible due to the Fact that Time is Bound to the Mind in the Presence of Consciousness
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.15
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind. This universal mind (UM) is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field gives birth to TRP that appears to be the origin of all the matter particles. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. TCP thus appears to be the origin of all the field particles. The quantized energy of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Time of any kind cannot exist without the existence of consciousness. Time without consciousness is not possible. But consciousness without time is possible due the existence of universal consciousness. The manifestation of any type of time is solely dependent on the manifestation of consciousness. There is no manifestation of ‘time’ unless there is the generation of consciousness [=εT =mT c2 = hc/λT (where mT= quantized mass of the TCP, c= free-space velocity of light, h = Planck’s quantum constant, λT = wavelength of the TCP)]. It is shown here that mental time travel is possible due to the fact that time is bound to the mind in the presence of consciousness.
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind. This universal mind (UM) is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field gives birth to TRP that appears to be the origin of all the matter particles. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. TCP thus appears to be the origin of all the field particles. The quantized energy of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the sameεT. The sameεT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Time of any kind cannot exist without the existence of consciousness. Time without consciousness is not possible. But consciousness without time is possible due the existence of universal consciousness. The manifestation of any type of time is solely dependent on the manifestation of consciousness. There is no manifestation of ‘time’ unless there is the generation of consciousness [=εT =mT c2 = hc/λT (where mT= quantized mass of the TCP, c= free-space velocity of light, h = Planck’s quantum constant, λT = wavelength of the TCP)]. It is shown here that mental time travel is possible due to the fact that time is bound to the mind in the presence of consciousness.
Mental Time Travel is Possible due to the Fact that Time is Bound to the Mind in the Presence of Consciousness
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
Mental Time Travel is Possible due to the Fact that Time is Bound to the Mind in the Presence of Consciousness
3
2
72
72
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.15
© Science Publishing Group
Cosserat-Cartan Modification of Einstein-Riemann Relativity and Cosmic Dark Energy Density
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.17
Based on pioneering works by Sciama and Kibble to extend Einstein-Cartan theory of gravity we give a new derivation for the cosmic energy density. It is argued that the ‘t Hooft-Veltman and Wilson method of renormalization implies the relativity of fractal spacetime at the quantum scale and a dark energy density of E(D) = 95.5 percent. It is further revealed that similar conclusions could be made using A.C. Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity. Finally the wider philosophical implication of the theory is discussed.
Based on pioneering works by Sciama and Kibble to extend Einstein-Cartan theory of gravity we give a new derivation for the cosmic energy density. It is argued that the ‘t Hooft-Veltman and Wilson method of renormalization implies the relativity of fractal spacetime at the quantum scale and a dark energy density of E(D) = 95.5 percent. It is further revealed that similar conclusions could be made using A.C. Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity. Finally the wider philosophical implication of the theory is discussed.
Cosserat-Cartan Modification of Einstein-Riemann Relativity and Cosmic Dark Energy Density
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.17
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-04-08
© Science Publishing Group
Mohamed S. El Naschie
Cosserat-Cartan Modification of Einstein-Riemann Relativity and Cosmic Dark Energy Density
3
2
87
87
2014-04-08
2014-04-08
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.17
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.17
© Science Publishing Group
An Econophysical Approach of Polynomial Distribution Applied to Income and Expenditure
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.18
Polynomial distribution can be applied to dynamic systems in certain situations. Macroeconomic systems characterized by economic variables such as income and wealth can be modelled similarly using polynomials. We extend our previous work to data regarding income from a more diversified pool of countries, which contains developed countries with high income, developed countries with middle income, developing and underdeveloped countries. Also, for the first time we look at the applicability of polynomial distribution to expenditure (consumption). Using cumulative distribution function, we found that polynomials are applicable with a high degree of success to the distribution of income to all countries considered without significant differences. Moreover, expenditure data can be fitted very well by this polynomial distribution. We considered a distribution to be robust if the values for coefficient of determination are higher than 90%. Using this criterion, we decided the degree for the polynomials used in our analysis by trying to minimize the number of coefficients, respectively first or second degree. Lastly, we look at possible correlation between the values from coefficient of determination and Gini coefficient for disposable income.
Polynomial distribution can be applied to dynamic systems in certain situations. Macroeconomic systems characterized by economic variables such as income and wealth can be modelled similarly using polynomials. We extend our previous work to data regarding income from a more diversified pool of countries, which contains developed countries with high income, developed countries with middle income, developing and underdeveloped countries. Also, for the first time we look at the applicability of polynomial distribution to expenditure (consumption). Using cumulative distribution function, we found that polynomials are applicable with a high degree of success to the distribution of income to all countries considered without significant differences. Moreover, expenditure data can be fitted very well by this polynomial distribution. We considered a distribution to be robust if the values for coefficient of determination are higher than 90%. Using this criterion, we decided the degree for the polynomials used in our analysis by trying to minimize the number of coefficients, respectively first or second degree. Lastly, we look at possible correlation between the values from coefficient of determination and Gini coefficient for disposable income.
An Econophysical Approach of Polynomial Distribution Applied to Income and Expenditure
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.18
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-04-08
© Science Publishing Group
Elvis Oltean
An Econophysical Approach of Polynomial Distribution Applied to Income and Expenditure
3
2
92
92
2014-04-08
2014-04-08
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.18
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.18
© Science Publishing Group
Tornadoes and the Global Anisotropy of the Physical Space
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.19
Whereas the basic physical mechanisms leading to the onset and evolution of tornadoes have been well established, some progress can still be useful to identify the conditions supporting the development of a tornado towards a violent or catastrophic stage, as well as possible specific and observable events triggering the onset of a tornado in a generally favorable atmospheric environment. On the basis of an assumed global anisotropy of the physical spaceand the associated non-gauge byuon theory, an additional mechanism of energy accumulation in the process of development of a tornado to its mature stage is proposedand its consistency is checked against a dataset of individual tornadoes as well as of tornado outbreaks. The results point to a significant link between the angle formed by the cosmological vector potentialrepresenting the global anisotropy of the physical space and the surface tangent to the local Earth’s surface and the occurrence of the most energetic tornadoes; as a consequence, such tornadoes are shown to occur only at specific times of the day depending on latitude, longitude and day of the year. Moreover, a further additional mechanism is proposed for the early origin of a tornado, on the basis of the interaction of a large peak current lightning discharge with the cosmological vector potential introduced by the byuon theory. It is shown how, in the framework of the proposed theory, a fraction of the energy of a tornado at its onset stage can originate from the self-energy associated with the formation of the physical space of elementary particles located along the lightning discharge. The verification of the proposed mechanism for the onset of tornadoes is delayed to later time when suitable data sets will be available.
Whereas the basic physical mechanisms leading to the onset and evolution of tornadoes have been well established, some progress can still be useful to identify the conditions supporting the development of a tornado towards a violent or catastrophic stage, as well as possible specific and observable events triggering the onset of a tornado in a generally favorable atmospheric environment. On the basis of an assumed global anisotropy of the physical spaceand the associated non-gauge byuon theory, an additional mechanism of energy accumulation in the process of development of a tornado to its mature stage is proposedand its consistency is checked against a dataset of individual tornadoes as well as of tornado outbreaks. The results point to a significant link between the angle formed by the cosmological vector potentialrepresenting the global anisotropy of the physical space and the surface tangent to the local Earth’s surface and the occurrence of the most energetic tornadoes; as a consequence, such tornadoes are shown to occur only at specific times of the day depending on latitude, longitude and day of the year. Moreover, a further additional mechanism is proposed for the early origin of a tornado, on the basis of the interaction of a large peak current lightning discharge with the cosmological vector potential introduced by the byuon theory. It is shown how, in the framework of the proposed theory, a fraction of the energy of a tornado at its onset stage can originate from the self-energy associated with the formation of the physical space of elementary particles located along the lightning discharge. The verification of the proposed mechanism for the onset of tornadoes is delayed to later time when suitable data sets will be available.
Tornadoes and the Global Anisotropy of the Physical Space
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.19
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-04-08
© Science Publishing Group
Yuriy Alexeevich Baurov
Igor Fedorovich Malov
Francesco Meneguzzo
Tornadoes and the Global Anisotropy of the Physical Space
3
2
112
112
2014-04-08
2014-04-08
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.19
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.19
© Science Publishing Group
Three-Mode Approximation of Symmetrical Triple-Square Wells
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.20
One transformation, analogy to two mode approximation, is presented for triple-square wells. The energy splitting is determined by the strength of the tunneling coupling between nearest neighbor wells, while the next-nearest neighbor tunneling coupling plays crucial role to the invariant first excited state with the maximum entanglement states for the far separated square-wells
One transformation, analogy to two mode approximation, is presented for triple-square wells. The energy splitting is determined by the strength of the tunneling coupling between nearest neighbor wells, while the next-nearest neighbor tunneling coupling plays crucial role to the invariant first excited state with the maximum entanglement states for the far separated square-wells
Three-Mode Approximation of Symmetrical Triple-Square Wells
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.20
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-04-12
© Science Publishing Group
XinJian Liu
WeiDong Li
Three-Mode Approximation of Symmetrical Triple-Square Wells
3
2
117
117
2014-04-12
2014-04-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.20
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.20
© Science Publishing Group
Boundary Conditions Effects on the Ground State of a Two-Electron Atom in a Vacuum Cavity
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.16
The ground state properties of the two-electron atom with atomic number in the spherical vacuum cavity with general boundary conditions of “not going out” are studied. It is shown that for certain parameters of the cavity such atom could either decay into the one-electron atom with the same atomic number and an electron or be in stable state with the binding and ionization energies several times bigger than the same energies of the free atom. By analogy with the Wigner-Seitz model of metallic bonding, the possibility of the existence of such effects on the lattice formed by the vacuum cavities filled with the two-electron atoms of the same type is discussed.
The ground state properties of the two-electron atom with atomic number in the spherical vacuum cavity with general boundary conditions of “not going out” are studied. It is shown that for certain parameters of the cavity such atom could either decay into the one-electron atom with the same atomic number and an electron or be in stable state with the binding and ionization energies several times bigger than the same energies of the free atom. By analogy with the Wigner-Seitz model of metallic bonding, the possibility of the existence of such effects on the lattice formed by the vacuum cavities filled with the two-electron atoms of the same type is discussed.
Boundary Conditions Effects on the Ground State of a Two-Electron Atom in a Vacuum Cavity
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-01-01
© Science Publishing Group
Andrey Tolokonnikov
Boundary Conditions Effects on the Ground State of a Two-Electron Atom in a Vacuum Cavity
3
2
81
81
2014-01-01
2014-01-01
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140302.16
© Science Publishing Group
Gravity Originates from Variable Energy Density of Quantum Vacuum
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.11
The physical understanding of the real mechanism of gravity is one of the most important questions in Physics. As we have already shown in a previous paper, the rest and relativistic mass of an elementary particle or body can be considered as having their origin in the diminished energy density of a Quantum Vacuum, characterized by a granular structure quantized through a Planck metric. The presence of massive bodies, from the scale of elementary particles to that of stellar objects and black holes, then determines Quantum Vacuum energy density gradients. In this paper we have proposed a novel physical model in which gravity is generated by the pressure of Quantum Vacuum in the direction of its own higher to lower density due to the presence of material objects or particles. In this picture gravity is an immediate and not – propagating action – at – a – distance interaction, resulting from the Quantum Vacuum dynamics, in turn related to fundamental properties of space itself only, not requiring the existence of the hypothetical graviton. Furthermore, the possibility to consider this Quantum Vacuum as a Bose – Einstein like condensate allows us to recover the large – scale description of the Universe consistent with General Relativity, viewed as the long – wavelength geometro – hydrodynamic limit of the Quantum Vacuum dynamics. The proposed model is also able to give a very simple explanation of: the equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass, the origin and dynamical behavior of dark matter and dark energy, the physical meaning of singularity in black hole, as well as to overcome some of the main difficulties of the Higgs model. Finally this model of gravity can be used as a starting point for a novel interpretation of the recently published data of BICEP2 radio telescope about the presumed indirect observation of gravitational wave
The physical understanding of the real mechanism of gravity is one of the most important questions in Physics. As we have already shown in a previous paper, the rest and relativistic mass of an elementary particle or body can be considered as having their origin in the diminished energy density of a Quantum Vacuum, characterized by a granular structure quantized through a Planck metric. The presence of massive bodies, from the scale of elementary particles to that of stellar objects and black holes, then determines Quantum Vacuum energy density gradients. In this paper we have proposed a novel physical model in which gravity is generated by the pressure of Quantum Vacuum in the direction of its own higher to lower density due to the presence of material objects or particles. In this picture gravity is an immediate and not – propagating action – at – a – distance interaction, resulting from the Quantum Vacuum dynamics, in turn related to fundamental properties of space itself only, not requiring the existence of the hypothetical graviton. Furthermore, the possibility to consider this Quantum Vacuum as a Bose – Einstein like condensate allows us to recover the large – scale description of the Universe consistent with General Relativity, viewed as the long – wavelength geometro – hydrodynamic limit of the Quantum Vacuum dynamics. The proposed model is also able to give a very simple explanation of: the equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass, the origin and dynamical behavior of dark matter and dark energy, the physical meaning of singularity in black hole, as well as to overcome some of the main difficulties of the Higgs model. Finally this model of gravity can be used as a starting point for a novel interpretation of the recently published data of BICEP2 radio telescope about the presumed indirect observation of gravitational wave
Gravity Originates from Variable Energy Density of Quantum Vacuum
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-04-22
© Science Publishing Group
Luigi Maxmilian Caligiuri
Amrit Sorli
Gravity Originates from Variable Energy Density of Quantum Vacuum
3
3
128
128
2014-04-22
2014-04-22
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.11
© Science Publishing Group
Brane Structure in Bio-Radiation
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.12
In this work we present a sort of structure of the brane in brane for describing the bio-radiations. The work is based on the extension of the superstring theory and can provide possible frame of biological brane to study intrinsic structure of the bio-radiations. This reveals the interaction of bio-radiation is not only electromagnetic but the week and electromagnetic, and the dimensions may be higher than four. As extension of the solitons, the brane or the brane in brane is proposed to play an important role in the bio-radiations, which can be used to explain many complicated phenomena from the somatic sciences.
In this work we present a sort of structure of the brane in brane for describing the bio-radiations. The work is based on the extension of the superstring theory and can provide possible frame of biological brane to study intrinsic structure of the bio-radiations. This reveals the interaction of bio-radiation is not only electromagnetic but the week and electromagnetic, and the dimensions may be higher than four. As extension of the solitons, the brane or the brane in brane is proposed to play an important role in the bio-radiations, which can be used to explain many complicated phenomena from the somatic sciences.
Brane Structure in Bio-Radiation
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-04-30
© Science Publishing Group
Bi Qiao
Song Kongzhi
Brane Structure in Bio-Radiation
3
3
132
132
2014-04-30
2014-04-30
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.12
© Science Publishing Group
A Statistical Physics Analysis of Expenditure in the UK
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.13
Most papers which explored so far macroeconomic variables took into account income and wealth. Equally important as the previous macroeconomic variables is the expenditure or consumption, which shows the amount of goods and services that a person or a household purchased. Using statistical distributions from Physics, such as Fermi-Dirac and polynomial distributions, we try to fit the data regarding the expenditure distribution divided in deciles of population according to their income (gross and disposable expenditure are taken into account). Using coefficient of determination as theoretical tool in order to assess the degree of success for these distributions, we find that both distributions are really robust in describing the expenditure distribution, regardless the data set or the methodology used to calculate the expenditure values for the deciles of income. This is the first paper to our knowledge which tackles expenditure, especially using a method to describe expenditure such as lower limit on expenditure. This is also relevant since it allows the approach of macroeconomic systems using more variables characterizing their activity, can help in the investigation of living standards and inequality, and points to more theoretical explorations which can be very useful for the Economics and business practice.
Most papers which explored so far macroeconomic variables took into account income and wealth. Equally important as the previous macroeconomic variables is the expenditure or consumption, which shows the amount of goods and services that a person or a household purchased. Using statistical distributions from Physics, such as Fermi-Dirac and polynomial distributions, we try to fit the data regarding the expenditure distribution divided in deciles of population according to their income (gross and disposable expenditure are taken into account). Using coefficient of determination as theoretical tool in order to assess the degree of success for these distributions, we find that both distributions are really robust in describing the expenditure distribution, regardless the data set or the methodology used to calculate the expenditure values for the deciles of income. This is the first paper to our knowledge which tackles expenditure, especially using a method to describe expenditure such as lower limit on expenditure. This is also relevant since it allows the approach of macroeconomic systems using more variables characterizing their activity, can help in the investigation of living standards and inequality, and points to more theoretical explorations which can be very useful for the Economics and business practice.
A Statistical Physics Analysis of Expenditure in the UK
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-05-14
© Science Publishing Group
Elvis Oltean
Fedor V. Kusmartsev
A Statistical Physics Analysis of Expenditure in the UK
3
3
137
137
2014-05-14
2014-05-14
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.13
© Science Publishing Group
Kinematical Brownian Motion of the Harmonic Oscillator in Non-Commutative Space
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.14
In this work the Jacobi’s second equality in the form of stochastic equation and the Wiener path integral approach are used to evaluate the probability density of harmonic oscillator in non-commutative space. Using the factorization theorem and the Mastubara formalism, the thermodynamic parameters are determined. The structure of Fokker-Planck equation remained the same even in a commutative and non-commutative space. Moreover, the non-commutative parameter is depicted for increasing value of the entropy.
In this work the Jacobi’s second equality in the form of stochastic equation and the Wiener path integral approach are used to evaluate the probability density of harmonic oscillator in non-commutative space. Using the factorization theorem and the Mastubara formalism, the thermodynamic parameters are determined. The structure of Fokker-Planck equation remained the same even in a commutative and non-commutative space. Moreover, the non-commutative parameter is depicted for increasing value of the entropy.
Kinematical Brownian Motion of the Harmonic Oscillator in Non-Commutative Space
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-05-27
© Science Publishing Group
Martin Tchoffo
Jules Casimir Ngana Kuetche
Georges Collince Fouokeng
Ngwa Engelbert Afuoti
Lukong Cornelius Fai
Kinematical Brownian Motion of the Harmonic Oscillator in Non-Commutative Space
3
3
142
142
2014-05-27
2014-05-27
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140303.14
© Science Publishing Group
The Fine-Structure Parameters and Zeeman Splitting of Levels of the Configurations 1sni (n = 7 − 10) of the Helium Atom
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.11
By the semiempirical method in the intermediate coupling, the fine-structure parameters of 1sni Helium atom configurations were determined from the resolution of the system of nonlinear equations by the Newton’s iteration method. The system is based on an energy operator nondiagonal matrix, in which the following interactions were taken into account: the electrostatic, the spin-orbit (own and other) and the spin-spin interactions. With the obtained fine-structure parameters, the numerical diagonalization of the energy operator matrix was effected. The result was the calculated energies, coinciding to last digit with the experimental analogues, and the intermediate coupling coefficients. The gyromagnetic ratios of the 3I6 and 1I6 levels were determined and the appreciation of the character of the coupling in the consider systems was done. The Zeeman structure of the 1sni configurations was investigated. Its particularity and the domain of linearity of the magnetic field were determined. The gyromagnetic ratios of all the four configurations levels were calculated by the magnetic component splitting.
By the semiempirical method in the intermediate coupling, the fine-structure parameters of 1sni Helium atom configurations were determined from the resolution of the system of nonlinear equations by the Newton’s iteration method. The system is based on an energy operator nondiagonal matrix, in which the following interactions were taken into account: the electrostatic, the spin-orbit (own and other) and the spin-spin interactions. With the obtained fine-structure parameters, the numerical diagonalization of the energy operator matrix was effected. The result was the calculated energies, coinciding to last digit with the experimental analogues, and the intermediate coupling coefficients. The gyromagnetic ratios of the 3I6 and 1I6 levels were determined and the appreciation of the character of the coupling in the consider systems was done. The Zeeman structure of the 1sni configurations was investigated. Its particularity and the domain of linearity of the magnetic field were determined. The gyromagnetic ratios of all the four configurations levels were calculated by the magnetic component splitting.
The Fine-Structure Parameters and Zeeman Splitting of Levels of the Configurations 1sni (n = 7 − 10) of the Helium Atom
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-06-23
© Science Publishing Group
Galina Pavlovna Anisimova
Igor Cheslavovich Mashek
Olga Aleksandrovna Dolmatova
Anna Petrovna Gorbenko
Robert Ivanovich Semenov
Martin Luther Tchoffo
Galina Aleksandrovna Tsygankova
The Fine-Structure Parameters and Zeeman Splitting of Levels of the Configurations 1sni (n = 7 − 10) of the Helium Atom
3
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151
151
2014-06-23
2014-06-23
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.11
© Science Publishing Group
The Integral Energy-Momentum 4-Vector and Analysis of 4/3 Problem Based on the Pressure Field and Acceleration Field
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.12
As a result of integration of the equations of motion with regard to the pressure field and acceleration field the system’s integral energy-momentum 4-vector is found. It is shown that this vector in the covariant theory of gravitation must be equal to zero. This allows us to explain the 4/3 problem and the problem of neutrino energy in an ideal spherical supernova collapse. At the same time, in order to describe the system’s state, instead of the integral 4-vector we must use the four-momentum, which is derived from the Lagrangian. The described approach differs substantially from the results of the general theory of relativity, in which the integral 4-vector serves as the system’s four-momentum, and the stress-energy tensor of the gravitational field is replaced by the corresponding pseudotensor.
As a result of integration of the equations of motion with regard to the pressure field and acceleration field the system’s integral energy-momentum 4-vector is found. It is shown that this vector in the covariant theory of gravitation must be equal to zero. This allows us to explain the 4/3 problem and the problem of neutrino energy in an ideal spherical supernova collapse. At the same time, in order to describe the system’s state, instead of the integral 4-vector we must use the four-momentum, which is derived from the Lagrangian. The described approach differs substantially from the results of the general theory of relativity, in which the integral 4-vector serves as the system’s four-momentum, and the stress-energy tensor of the gravitational field is replaced by the corresponding pseudotensor.
The Integral Energy-Momentum 4-Vector and Analysis of 4/3 Problem Based on the Pressure Field and Acceleration Field
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-06-30
© Science Publishing Group
Sergey Grigor'yevich Fedosin
The Integral Energy-Momentum 4-Vector and Analysis of 4/3 Problem Based on the Pressure Field and Acceleration Field
3
4
167
167
2014-06-30
2014-06-30
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.12
© Science Publishing Group
Multi-Wavelength Raman Characterization of Back-Gated Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13
In this work, we investigate the Raman spectrum of gated monolayer and bilayer graphene devices. We used Raman spectroscopy with three different excitation wavelengths: (488nm, 514nm and 633nm). After producing graphene sheets by scotch tape technique, Raman spectrometry used to distinguish between bilayer, mono layer and other few layer of graphene. We contact the wires on the flakes using micro-soldering method then we applied gate voltage on monolayer and bilayer graphene and investigate the changes in peak of the Raman spectra in different wavelengths in different voltages. Raman spectroscopy probes phonons as well as electronic states. If the electronic dispersion changes, the Raman spectrum will also changes. The shifts of the Raman spectra peaks of the monolayer and bilayer are explained in the current work. Charge carrier concentration as a function of gate voltage in gated graphene is shown as well as the position of the G peak and 2D peak graphene versus gate voltage. For monolayer devices we observed the expected behavior for doped devices. For bilayer devices, we present a comparison between the theoretical model and our experimental results.
In this work, we investigate the Raman spectrum of gated monolayer and bilayer graphene devices. We used Raman spectroscopy with three different excitation wavelengths: (488nm, 514nm and 633nm). After producing graphene sheets by scotch tape technique, Raman spectrometry used to distinguish between bilayer, mono layer and other few layer of graphene. We contact the wires on the flakes using micro-soldering method then we applied gate voltage on monolayer and bilayer graphene and investigate the changes in peak of the Raman spectra in different wavelengths in different voltages. Raman spectroscopy probes phonons as well as electronic states. If the electronic dispersion changes, the Raman spectrum will also changes. The shifts of the Raman spectra peaks of the monolayer and bilayer are explained in the current work. Charge carrier concentration as a function of gate voltage in gated graphene is shown as well as the position of the G peak and 2D peak graphene versus gate voltage. For monolayer devices we observed the expected behavior for doped devices. For bilayer devices, we present a comparison between the theoretical model and our experimental results.
Multi-Wavelength Raman Characterization of Back-Gated Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-07-16
© Science Publishing Group
Maedeh Arvani
Mahdi Aghajanloo
Multi-Wavelength Raman Characterization of Back-Gated Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene
3
4
172
172
2014-07-16
2014-07-16
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.13
© Science Publishing Group
On the Origin of the Observer
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.14
Observer is a fundamental element of physics and science in general. It also plays an important role in modern psychology as an entity that has ability to be aware of all different contents of conscious and unconscious mind. Observer is a central point of developed personality and represents the origin of creativity, auto-reflective thinking and mental health. Until one is aware of his mind activity which might be fully destructive, he will not go insane. Human mind changes continuously, observer is always the same, stable and present. In generally in the universe all that is made out of quanta changes and is in motion. From this perspective the origin of the observer might be beyond known matter and energy in the sense of Einstein’s formula E=mc2. Trivalent logic allows existence of some entity that is not A (matter), is not B (energy), but is C. Application of bijective epistemology and theory of numbers confirm observer might have non-material origin.
Observer is a fundamental element of physics and science in general. It also plays an important role in modern psychology as an entity that has ability to be aware of all different contents of conscious and unconscious mind. Observer is a central point of developed personality and represents the origin of creativity, auto-reflective thinking and mental health. Until one is aware of his mind activity which might be fully destructive, he will not go insane. Human mind changes continuously, observer is always the same, stable and present. In generally in the universe all that is made out of quanta changes and is in motion. From this perspective the origin of the observer might be beyond known matter and energy in the sense of Einstein’s formula E=mc2. Trivalent logic allows existence of some entity that is not A (matter), is not B (energy), but is C. Application of bijective epistemology and theory of numbers confirm observer might have non-material origin.
On the Origin of the Observer
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-07-26
© Science Publishing Group
Amrit Sorli
On the Origin of the Observer
3
4
177
177
2014-07-26
2014-07-26
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.14
© Science Publishing Group
Self-Similar Transformations of Lattice-Ising Models at Critical Temperatures
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.16
We classify geometric blocks that serve as spin carriers into simple blocks and compound blocks by their topologic connectivity, define their fractal dimensions and describe the relevant transformations. By the hierarchical property of transformations and a block-spin scaling law we obtain a relation between the block spin and its carrier’s fractal dimension. By mapping we set up a block-spin Gaussian model and get a formula connecting the critical point and the minimal fractal dimension of the carrier, which guarantees the uniqueness of a fixed point corresponding to the critical point, changing the complicated calculation of critical point into the simple one of the minimal fractal dimension. The numerical results of critical points with high accuracy for five conventional lattice-Ising models prove our method very effective and may be suitable to all lattice-Ising models. The origin of fluctuations in structure at critical temperature is discussed. Our method not only explains the problems met in the renormalization-group theory, but also provides a useful tool for deep investigation of the critical behaviour.
We classify geometric blocks that serve as spin carriers into simple blocks and compound blocks by their topologic connectivity, define their fractal dimensions and describe the relevant transformations. By the hierarchical property of transformations and a block-spin scaling law we obtain a relation between the block spin and its carrier’s fractal dimension. By mapping we set up a block-spin Gaussian model and get a formula connecting the critical point and the minimal fractal dimension of the carrier, which guarantees the uniqueness of a fixed point corresponding to the critical point, changing the complicated calculation of critical point into the simple one of the minimal fractal dimension. The numerical results of critical points with high accuracy for five conventional lattice-Ising models prove our method very effective and may be suitable to all lattice-Ising models. The origin of fluctuations in structure at critical temperature is discussed. Our method not only explains the problems met in the renormalization-group theory, but also provides a useful tool for deep investigation of the critical behaviour.
Self-Similar Transformations of Lattice-Ising Models at Critical Temperatures
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-08-05
© Science Publishing Group
You-Gang Feng
Self-Similar Transformations of Lattice-Ising Models at Critical Temperatures
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2014-08-05
2014-08-05
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.16
© Science Publishing Group
Secondary Phase Transition of Ising Model
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.15
Lttice-spin phonons are considered, which make the heat capacity at the critical temperature satisfy experimental observations better. There is a BEC phase transition in an Ising model attributable to the lattice-spin phonons. We proved that the spin-wave theory only is available after BEC transition, and the magnons have the same characteristics as the lattice-spin phonons’, resulting from quantum effect. Energy-level overlap effect at ultra-low temperature is found. A prediction of BEC phase transition in a crystal is put forward as our theory generalization.
Lttice-spin phonons are considered, which make the heat capacity at the critical temperature satisfy experimental observations better. There is a BEC phase transition in an Ising model attributable to the lattice-spin phonons. We proved that the spin-wave theory only is available after BEC transition, and the magnons have the same characteristics as the lattice-spin phonons’, resulting from quantum effect. Energy-level overlap effect at ultra-low temperature is found. A prediction of BEC phase transition in a crystal is put forward as our theory generalization.
Secondary Phase Transition of Ising Model
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-08-05
© Science Publishing Group
You-Gang Feng
Secondary Phase Transition of Ising Model
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183
183
2014-08-05
2014-08-05
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.15
© Science Publishing Group
Criterion for Existence of the Negative Dielectric Reality in Crystals
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.11
The real physical conditions of appearance the negative dielectric permittivity (DP) within frequency TL splitting of polar vibrations in crystals are discussed in this paper. We have derived the simple quantitative criterion for the existence of negative DP band using single oscillation model. Our criterion is presented in three equivalent forms as inequalities between the fundamental crystal constants and spectroscopic parameters of polar vibration. Applicability of our theoretical results for multimode case is demonstrated using 7 known polar vibrations in the model crystal of boron nitride.
The real physical conditions of appearance the negative dielectric permittivity (DP) within frequency TL splitting of polar vibrations in crystals are discussed in this paper. We have derived the simple quantitative criterion for the existence of negative DP band using single oscillation model. Our criterion is presented in three equivalent forms as inequalities between the fundamental crystal constants and spectroscopic parameters of polar vibration. Applicability of our theoretical results for multimode case is demonstrated using 7 known polar vibrations in the model crystal of boron nitride.
Criterion for Existence of the Negative Dielectric Reality in Crystals
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-09-11
© Science Publishing Group
Stanislav Felinskyi
Georgii Felinskyi
Criterion for Existence of the Negative Dielectric Reality in Crystals
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201
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2014-09-11
2014-09-11
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.11
© Science Publishing Group
Quasilinear Theory for Relativistic Particles
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.13
Quasilinear theory is developed by using canonical variables for relativistic particles. It is self-consistent, including momentum, pitch-angle, and spatial diffusions. By assuming the wave field is a superposition of known toroidal and poloidal Fourier modes, the quasilinear diffusion coefficients are written in a form which can be directly evaluated by using the output of a spectral full-wave solver of Maxwell equations in toroidal plasmas. The formalism is special for tokamaks which are axis-symmetric, therefore, it is simple and suitable for simulations of cyclotron heating, current drive and radio-frequency wave induced radial transport in ITER. PACS: 52.35.Py, 52.50.Sw, 52.35.Fa.
Quasilinear theory is developed by using canonical variables for relativistic particles. It is self-consistent, including momentum, pitch-angle, and spatial diffusions. By assuming the wave field is a superposition of known toroidal and poloidal Fourier modes, the quasilinear diffusion coefficients are written in a form which can be directly evaluated by using the output of a spectral full-wave solver of Maxwell equations in toroidal plasmas. The formalism is special for tokamaks which are axis-symmetric, therefore, it is simple and suitable for simulations of cyclotron heating, current drive and radio-frequency wave induced radial transport in ITER. PACS: 52.35.Py, 52.50.Sw, 52.35.Fa.
Quasilinear Theory for Relativistic Particles
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-09-30
© Science Publishing Group
Zhong-Tian Wang
Zhi-Xiong He
Zhan-Hui Wang
Min Xu
Jia-Qi Dong
Na Wu
Shao-Yong Chen
Chang-Jian Tang
Quasilinear Theory for Relativistic Particles
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2014-09-30
2014-09-30
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.13
© Science Publishing Group
Diffusivity Scaling on Shear Flow
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.12
Diffusivity scaling on shear flow is investigated. Radial electrical field is the drive of the flow. The turning points of the trapped particle are not on the drift surface, but modified by the radial electrical field. For the first time, an analytical expression of the banana width in presence of shear flow is accurately derived. The particle diffusivity given by Rosenbluth is reproduced but with the shear flow modification.
Diffusivity scaling on shear flow is investigated. Radial electrical field is the drive of the flow. The turning points of the trapped particle are not on the drift surface, but modified by the radial electrical field. For the first time, an analytical expression of the banana width in presence of shear flow is accurately derived. The particle diffusivity given by Rosenbluth is reproduced but with the shear flow modification.
Diffusivity Scaling on Shear Flow
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-09-30
© Science Publishing Group
Zhong-Tian Wang
Zhi-Xiong He
Jia-Qi Dong
Zhan-Hui Wang
Shao-Yong Chen
Chang-Jian Tang
Diffusivity Scaling on Shear Flow
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2014-09-30
2014-09-30
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140305.12
© Science Publishing Group
Elementary Excitations of Ising Models at the Critical Temperatures
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.11
Ordered Ising models as ferromagnetic having nonsingular heat capacities at the critical temperatures are considered. A new parameter vector q ⃗ is found to describe the spin correlations and fluctuation characteristics. The conservation of scalar q indicates that there is simple harmonic motion of q ⃗, and the motion’s quantum is called block-spin phonons, like the phonons in a crystal, resulting in nonsingular heat capacity near the critical point. The harmonic motion shows there are hierarchies and symmetries of fluctuations, while the soft mode may lead to the interactions of block-spin phonons with different frequencies. We are certain that the critical point for an Ising model only exists in a statistical sense although the system at the critical temperature. The fluctuations undergo about the critical point, which the system never attains. It is the first time for us that the specific forms of the spins’ correlation functions for Ising models at the critical temperatures are obtained.
Ordered Ising models as ferromagnetic having nonsingular heat capacities at the critical temperatures are considered. A new parameter vector q ⃗ is found to describe the spin correlations and fluctuation characteristics. The conservation of scalar q indicates that there is simple harmonic motion of q ⃗, and the motion’s quantum is called block-spin phonons, like the phonons in a crystal, resulting in nonsingular heat capacity near the critical point. The harmonic motion shows there are hierarchies and symmetries of fluctuations, while the soft mode may lead to the interactions of block-spin phonons with different frequencies. We are certain that the critical point for an Ising model only exists in a statistical sense although the system at the critical temperature. The fluctuations undergo about the critical point, which the system never attains. It is the first time for us that the specific forms of the spins’ correlation functions for Ising models at the critical temperatures are obtained.
Elementary Excitations of Ising Models at the Critical Temperatures
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-10-29
© Science Publishing Group
You-Gang Feng
Elementary Excitations of Ising Models at the Critical Temperatures
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217
217
2014-10-29
2014-10-29
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.11
© Science Publishing Group
Features of the Zeeman Splitting and G-Factors of 2p5f Configuration Levels of Carbon Atom
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.12
The gyromagnetic ratios of levels (the g-factors) – are one of the most important characteristics of atoms. There are no corresponding experimental data in the literature for npn`l configurations of carbon atom. That is why the theoretical study of the fine and the Zeeman structures for the determination of the g-factors is ongoing. All the calculations are effected in one configuration approximation, with the energy operator matrix, in which the maximum possible number of interactions is taken into account, including the magnetic, spin-orbit (own and other) and spin-spin interactions. The fine structures were studied in three approximations (LS, LK, jK) for the establishment of the character of the coupling in 2p5f C I configuration. During the study of Zeeman splitting (except the g-factors) features of it were determined: the fields of crossings and anticrossings of magnetic components. In all steps of calculations the numerical digitalization of corresponding energy operator matrices were effected, e.g. the results presented in the paper were obtain in the intermediate coupling approximation.
The gyromagnetic ratios of levels (the g-factors) – are one of the most important characteristics of atoms. There are no corresponding experimental data in the literature for npn`l configurations of carbon atom. That is why the theoretical study of the fine and the Zeeman structures for the determination of the g-factors is ongoing. All the calculations are effected in one configuration approximation, with the energy operator matrix, in which the maximum possible number of interactions is taken into account, including the magnetic, spin-orbit (own and other) and spin-spin interactions. The fine structures were studied in three approximations (LS, LK, jK) for the establishment of the character of the coupling in 2p5f C I configuration. During the study of Zeeman splitting (except the g-factors) features of it were determined: the fields of crossings and anticrossings of magnetic components. In all steps of calculations the numerical digitalization of corresponding energy operator matrices were effected, e.g. the results presented in the paper were obtain in the intermediate coupling approximation.
Features of the Zeeman Splitting and G-Factors of 2p5f Configuration Levels of Carbon Atom
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-10-31
© Science Publishing Group
Galina Pavlovna Anisimova
Igor Cheslavovich Mashek
Olga Aleksandrovna Dolmatova
Anna Petrovna Gorbenko
Robert Ivanovich Semenov
Martin Tchoffo
Galina Aleksandrovna Tsygankova
Features of the Zeeman Splitting and G-Factors of 2p5f Configuration Levels of Carbon Atom
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2014-10-31
2014-10-31
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.12
© Science Publishing Group
The Attract Force Equation of Energy
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.13
The attract force equation of energy deduced from the Newton the principle of gravitation and the mass–energy equation (E=mc2) of Einstein. The equation describe the attract force cause by two energy fields. It can be said that the energy exists in any form (such as energy of heat, energy of photon, electronic energy, magnetic energy, even kinetic energy, and potential energy) can cause the attract force between them. The constant Gc (8.26269×10-45 m-1kg-1s2) was given in the equation. The equation may help to explain and understand the phenomena of basis physics, cosmology and astronomy, such as the dark matter or dark energy.
The attract force equation of energy deduced from the Newton the principle of gravitation and the mass–energy equation (E=mc2) of Einstein. The equation describe the attract force cause by two energy fields. It can be said that the energy exists in any form (such as energy of heat, energy of photon, electronic energy, magnetic energy, even kinetic energy, and potential energy) can cause the attract force between them. The constant Gc (8.26269×10-45 m-1kg-1s2) was given in the equation. The equation may help to explain and understand the phenomena of basis physics, cosmology and astronomy, such as the dark matter or dark energy.
The Attract Force Equation of Energy
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-11-04
© Science Publishing Group
Yan Ji
The Attract Force Equation of Energy
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2014-11-04
2014-11-04
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.13
© Science Publishing Group
Thick Shell Evolution in Reissner–Nordström Spacetime
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.14
The new extension formalism, developed by Khakshournia and Mansouri, is used to analyze the dynamics of a general shell of matter with an arbitrary finite thickness immersed in a curved space time. Within this new formulation the equations of motion of a spherically symmetric thick shell immersed in Reissner–Nordström (RN) space time is obtained.
The new extension formalism, developed by Khakshournia and Mansouri, is used to analyze the dynamics of a general shell of matter with an arbitrary finite thickness immersed in a curved space time. Within this new formulation the equations of motion of a spherically symmetric thick shell immersed in Reissner–Nordström (RN) space time is obtained.
Thick Shell Evolution in Reissner–Nordström Spacetime
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-11-05
© Science Publishing Group
Ali Eid
Thick Shell Evolution in Reissner–Nordström Spacetime
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2014-11-05
2014-11-05
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.14
© Science Publishing Group
Super Theory of Relativity-Explanation to ‘Rest Mass of Photon’, ‘Quantum Entanglement’ and ‘Consciousness’
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.15
Siva’s theories explained the necessity of new theory for description of the Universe, space ,time ,space-time and matter. It explained the formation of ‘space time continuum’ in terms of ‘Films of the universe’ and an effect of consciousness associated to living things. Thus it is required to bring consciousness in to physical laws and transformations. The relation between physical world and consciousness has been analyzed clearly and explained that consciousness, if we interpret in physics, must be an inertial frame of reference which can be transformed in to inertial frames defined by ‘Special Theory of Relativity’. It is possible only by changing the signal velocity from ‘c’ to ‘c√2’ . Thus the ‘Special Theory of Relativity’ has been modified and named as ‘Super theory of Relativity’. The relativistic factor for it is also calculated as [1+(v2/c2)]1/2 where v = vo [{1- (vo2/c2)}]-1/2 here vo is its absolute velocity .The necessity to adopt a new signal velocity which is greater than that of light has been discussed and the ‘Principle of Relativity’ and ‘Principle of simultaneity’ which are basics for transformation has been applied to interpret it in terms of relativity. It has been concluded that velocity of light is a part of signal velocity and photon will have rest mass. It says that the observable velocity is a result of absolute velocity multiplied by relativistic factor for ‘Super Theory of Relativity’. Thus infinite signal transformation is introduced for transformation between Inertial frames of reference. Infinite signal velocity will explain the ‘Quantum entanglement’ in terms of transformation of physical laws from one frame to another as explained in ‘Special & General Theories of Relativity’.
Siva’s theories explained the necessity of new theory for description of the Universe, space ,time ,space-time and matter. It explained the formation of ‘space time continuum’ in terms of ‘Films of the universe’ and an effect of consciousness associated to living things. Thus it is required to bring consciousness in to physical laws and transformations. The relation between physical world and consciousness has been analyzed clearly and explained that consciousness, if we interpret in physics, must be an inertial frame of reference which can be transformed in to inertial frames defined by ‘Special Theory of Relativity’. It is possible only by changing the signal velocity from ‘c’ to ‘c√2’ . Thus the ‘Special Theory of Relativity’ has been modified and named as ‘Super theory of Relativity’. The relativistic factor for it is also calculated as [1+(v2/c2)]1/2 where v = vo [{1- (vo2/c2)}]-1/2 here vo is its absolute velocity .The necessity to adopt a new signal velocity which is greater than that of light has been discussed and the ‘Principle of Relativity’ and ‘Principle of simultaneity’ which are basics for transformation has been applied to interpret it in terms of relativity. It has been concluded that velocity of light is a part of signal velocity and photon will have rest mass. It says that the observable velocity is a result of absolute velocity multiplied by relativistic factor for ‘Super Theory of Relativity’. Thus infinite signal transformation is introduced for transformation between Inertial frames of reference. Infinite signal velocity will explain the ‘Quantum entanglement’ in terms of transformation of physical laws from one frame to another as explained in ‘Special & General Theories of Relativity’.
Super Theory of Relativity-Explanation to ‘Rest Mass of Photon’, ‘Quantum Entanglement’ and ‘Consciousness’
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-11-11
© Science Publishing Group
Siva Prasad Kodukula
Super Theory of Relativity-Explanation to ‘Rest Mass of Photon’, ‘Quantum Entanglement’ and ‘Consciousness’
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239
2014-11-11
2014-11-11
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.15
© Science Publishing Group
Thermodynamics Properties of a System with Finite Heavy Mass Nuclei
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.16
The thermodynamics property of finite heavy mass nuclei, with the number of protons greater than the number of neutron is investigated. The core of the nucleus contains the neutron-proton pair that interacts harmonically; the excess neutron(s) reside(s) on the surface of the nucleus and introduce the anharmonic effect. The total energy is evaluated using ladder operator method and the quantum mechanical statistical expression of energy. The total energy, heat capacity and entropy are found to depend on the occupation number of states and the number of excess neutrons. At temperature near absolute zero the specific heat and entropy are lowest because a decreases in temperature leads to a decrease in particle interaction and energy.
The thermodynamics property of finite heavy mass nuclei, with the number of protons greater than the number of neutron is investigated. The core of the nucleus contains the neutron-proton pair that interacts harmonically; the excess neutron(s) reside(s) on the surface of the nucleus and introduce the anharmonic effect. The total energy is evaluated using ladder operator method and the quantum mechanical statistical expression of energy. The total energy, heat capacity and entropy are found to depend on the occupation number of states and the number of excess neutrons. At temperature near absolute zero the specific heat and entropy are lowest because a decreases in temperature leads to a decrease in particle interaction and energy.
Thermodynamics Properties of a System with Finite Heavy Mass Nuclei
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-11-19
© Science Publishing Group
Boniface Otieno Ndinya
Alex Okello
Thermodynamics Properties of a System with Finite Heavy Mass Nuclei
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2014-11-19
2014-11-19
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.16
© Science Publishing Group
The Specificities of the Nature of Neutrinos
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.17
The paper deals with the problem of lepton flavor and neutrino oscillation. The oscillation property concerns only the light neutrino. The discussion about the mixing of the light and so-called heavy neutrinos seems to be doubtful.
The paper deals with the problem of lepton flavor and neutrino oscillation. The oscillation property concerns only the light neutrino. The discussion about the mixing of the light and so-called heavy neutrinos seems to be doubtful.
The Specificities of the Nature of Neutrinos
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.17
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-12-02
© Science Publishing Group
V. P. Efrosinin
The Specificities of the Nature of Neutrinos
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246
246
2014-12-02
2014-12-02
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.17
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.17
© Science Publishing Group
Low-Loss Propagation in Semiconductor AlxGa1-xAs Waveguide
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.19
We theoretically studied the effect of a metal dimensions on the propagation loss of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a metal-semiconductor-semiconductor (MSS). The propagation loss of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is studied at the interfaces between metals and active media .The propagation loss is calculated at the wavelength λ=1550nm for different widths and thicknesses of a gold layer. Also it has been observed the variation of the propagation loss with the height of the AlxGa1-xAs which is between the gold film and high refractive semiconductor. We analyze metal-semiconductor-semiconductor (MSS) waveguide by using the effective-index method (EIM) and the finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) methods.
We theoretically studied the effect of a metal dimensions on the propagation loss of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a metal-semiconductor-semiconductor (MSS). The propagation loss of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is studied at the interfaces between metals and active media .The propagation loss is calculated at the wavelength λ=1550nm for different widths and thicknesses of a gold layer. Also it has been observed the variation of the propagation loss with the height of the AlxGa1-xAs which is between the gold film and high refractive semiconductor. We analyze metal-semiconductor-semiconductor (MSS) waveguide by using the effective-index method (EIM) and the finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) methods.
Low-Loss Propagation in Semiconductor AlxGa1-xAs Waveguide
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.19
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-12-23
© Science Publishing Group
Latef M. Ali
Low-Loss Propagation in Semiconductor AlxGa1-xAs Waveguide
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2014-12-23
2014-12-23
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.19
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.19
© Science Publishing Group
Radon Emanation from Drinking Water Samples of Nineveh Province (IRAQ)
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.20
The study include measurements of radon concentration in water samples for a total of eleven selected locations from Nineveh province. The natural exposure method using CR-39 track detector and the sealed cuptechniquewere chosen for analysis of radon concentration. Radon content in water samples of the study area ranges from 17.4Bq/l in Talskuf to 36.1 Bq/l in Sad Al-Mosul with an average value 26.37 Bq/l, all measured 222Rn activity concentrations in water are below the European Commission recommended level for radon in drinking water of 100 Bq/l.The results of the annual effective dose ranged from 64µSv/y in Talskuf to 132 µSv/y in Sad Al-Mosul, the total annual effective dose in 54.54% locations of the studied area are found to be within the safe limit (0.1 mSv/year) recommended by World Health Organization and EU Council and 45.45% locations are exceeding the annual effective dose limit of 0.1 mSv/y.
The study include measurements of radon concentration in water samples for a total of eleven selected locations from Nineveh province. The natural exposure method using CR-39 track detector and the sealed cuptechniquewere chosen for analysis of radon concentration. Radon content in water samples of the study area ranges from 17.4Bq/l in Talskuf to 36.1 Bq/l in Sad Al-Mosul with an average value 26.37 Bq/l, all measured 222Rn activity concentrations in water are below the European Commission recommended level for radon in drinking water of 100 Bq/l.The results of the annual effective dose ranged from 64µSv/y in Talskuf to 132 µSv/y in Sad Al-Mosul, the total annual effective dose in 54.54% locations of the studied area are found to be within the safe limit (0.1 mSv/year) recommended by World Health Organization and EU Council and 45.45% locations are exceeding the annual effective dose limit of 0.1 mSv/y.
Radon Emanation from Drinking Water Samples of Nineveh Province (IRAQ)
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.20
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-01-03
© Science Publishing Group
Laith Ahmed Najam
Nada Fathil Tawfiq
Enas Mohmad Younis
Radon Emanation from Drinking Water Samples of Nineveh Province (IRAQ)
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2015-01-03
2015-01-03
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.20
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.20
© Science Publishing Group
The Power of the Mind to Influence other Minds by the Will-Force in the Presence of Consciousness Leading to Super-Consciousness
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.21
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same εT. The same εT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo can address the power of the mind to influence other minds by the will-force in the presence of consciousness leading to super-consciousness.
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (εT) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same εT. The same εT is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo can address the power of the mind to influence other minds by the will-force in the presence of consciousness leading to super-consciousness.
The Power of the Mind to Influence other Minds by the Will-Force in the Presence of Consciousness Leading to Super-Consciousness
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.21
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-01-08
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
The Power of the Mind to Influence other Minds by the Will-Force in the Presence of Consciousness Leading to Super-Consciousness
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279
279
2015-01-08
2015-01-08
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.21
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.21
© Science Publishing Group
Unified Field Theory and Topology of Atom
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.18
The paper "Unified Field Theory and the Configuration of Particles" opened a new chapter of physics. One of the predictions of the paper is that a proton has an octahedron shape. As Physics progresses, it focuses more on invisible particles and the unreachable grand universe as visible matter is studied theoretically and experimentally. The shape of invisible proton has great impact on the topology of atom. Electron orbits, electron binding energy, Madelung Rules, and Zeeman splitting, are associated with proton’s octahedron shape and three nuclear structural axes. An element will be chemically stable if the outmost s and p clouds have eight electrons which make atom a symmetrical cubic.
The paper "Unified Field Theory and the Configuration of Particles" opened a new chapter of physics. One of the predictions of the paper is that a proton has an octahedron shape. As Physics progresses, it focuses more on invisible particles and the unreachable grand universe as visible matter is studied theoretically and experimentally. The shape of invisible proton has great impact on the topology of atom. Electron orbits, electron binding energy, Madelung Rules, and Zeeman splitting, are associated with proton’s octahedron shape and three nuclear structural axes. An element will be chemically stable if the outmost s and p clouds have eight electrons which make atom a symmetrical cubic.
Unified Field Theory and Topology of Atom
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.18
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-10-20
© Science Publishing Group
Zhiliang Cao
Henry Gu Cao
Wenan Qiang
Unified Field Theory and Topology of Atom
3
6
253
253
2014-10-20
2014-10-20
10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.18
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20140306.18
© Science Publishing Group
Calculation of Vibration Modes of Mechanical Waves on Microtubules Presented like Strings and Bars
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2014030601.11
The study describes a physical model of vibrating microtubules in living cells, presented as strings and bars. Calculated are proper-frequencies of first four vibration modes of transverse and longitudinal waves on microtubules. For microtubules with length 1-30µm and shear modulus 5.0×106 N/m2 the proper-frequencies of standing transverse waves fall in diapason of 1×103 - 5×107 Hz. For microtubules with same length and Young’s modulus 108–109 N/m2 the proper-frequencies of standing longitudinal waves fall in diapason of 5×106 - 3×109 Hz. These calculated diapasons of frequencies overlap with experimentally registered diapasons of frequencies of mechanical and electric vibrations in bacteria, yeast cells, erythrocytes, infuzorii and soma cells. Some theoretical problems related to the present model are discussed.
The study describes a physical model of vibrating microtubules in living cells, presented as strings and bars. Calculated are proper-frequencies of first four vibration modes of transverse and longitudinal waves on microtubules. For microtubules with length 1-30µm and shear modulus 5.0×106 N/m2 the proper-frequencies of standing transverse waves fall in diapason of 1×103 - 5×107 Hz. For microtubules with same length and Young’s modulus 108–109 N/m2 the proper-frequencies of standing longitudinal waves fall in diapason of 5×106 - 3×109 Hz. These calculated diapasons of frequencies overlap with experimentally registered diapasons of frequencies of mechanical and electric vibrations in bacteria, yeast cells, erythrocytes, infuzorii and soma cells. Some theoretical problems related to the present model are discussed.
Calculation of Vibration Modes of Mechanical Waves on Microtubules Presented like Strings and Bars
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2014030601.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-07-13
© Science Publishing Group
Atanas Todorov Atanasov
Calculation of Vibration Modes of Mechanical Waves on Microtubules Presented like Strings and Bars
3
6
11
11
2014-07-13
2014-07-13
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2014030601.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2014030601.11
© Science Publishing Group
Principles and Structure of the Real Multiverse: Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.11
Many hypotheses of the Multiverse have been suggested; however, they are so extraordinary that the Universes they include will never – even in the most distant future – be accessible for people. That is, they will always remain non-existent. Therefore, the hypothesis of the real Multiverse is suggested, where parallel Universes comply with the similarity principle, that is, the laws of nature governing them have much in common. This circumstance enables the inhabitants of this Multiverse to visit parallel Universes. The suggested Multiverse hypothesis relies on the adjusted special theory of relativity (the STR), where the ambiguity of the second postulate is eliminated by removing the statements on the unbreakable light speed barrier and on imaginary numbers having no physical meaning. The fact that imaginary numbers have physical meaning is supported by a theoretical and experimental investigation of oscillation processes in linear electric circuits. Since mathematics is a common and unambiguous language of science, the principle of the physical reality of imaginary numbers must be accepted as the general scientific one, true, in particular, for the STR. It is demonstrated that the Multiverse hypothesis suggested herein explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy.
Many hypotheses of the Multiverse have been suggested; however, they are so extraordinary that the Universes they include will never – even in the most distant future – be accessible for people. That is, they will always remain non-existent. Therefore, the hypothesis of the real Multiverse is suggested, where parallel Universes comply with the similarity principle, that is, the laws of nature governing them have much in common. This circumstance enables the inhabitants of this Multiverse to visit parallel Universes. The suggested Multiverse hypothesis relies on the adjusted special theory of relativity (the STR), where the ambiguity of the second postulate is eliminated by removing the statements on the unbreakable light speed barrier and on imaginary numbers having no physical meaning. The fact that imaginary numbers have physical meaning is supported by a theoretical and experimental investigation of oscillation processes in linear electric circuits. Since mathematics is a common and unambiguous language of science, the principle of the physical reality of imaginary numbers must be accepted as the general scientific one, true, in particular, for the STR. It is demonstrated that the Multiverse hypothesis suggested herein explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy.
Principles and Structure of the Real Multiverse: Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-01-12
© Science Publishing Group
Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov
Principles and Structure of the Real Multiverse: Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Phenomena
4
1
9
9
2015-01-12
2015-01-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.11
© Science Publishing Group
Half-Spin Particles Modeled as Electromagnetic Resonance Based Micro-Black-Holes
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.12
The energy conversion process in a cosmic expansion scenario, initially in a radiation dominated phase that transits to a half-spin particle matter dominated phase, is characterized as due to an electromagnetic resonance based process with an altered light speed that can be linked to particle based gravitational time dilation. Such a matter formation process is shown to have a space-time signature that is consistent with a General Relativity Schwarzschield micro-black-hole solution. Using Special Relativity as a constraint condition, half-spin particles, when viewed as micro-black-holes, can have the same physically relevant gravitational analytical solutions as General Relativity.
The energy conversion process in a cosmic expansion scenario, initially in a radiation dominated phase that transits to a half-spin particle matter dominated phase, is characterized as due to an electromagnetic resonance based process with an altered light speed that can be linked to particle based gravitational time dilation. Such a matter formation process is shown to have a space-time signature that is consistent with a General Relativity Schwarzschield micro-black-hole solution. Using Special Relativity as a constraint condition, half-spin particles, when viewed as micro-black-holes, can have the same physically relevant gravitational analytical solutions as General Relativity.
Half-Spin Particles Modeled as Electromagnetic Resonance Based Micro-Black-Holes
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-01-20
© Science Publishing Group
Thomas A. Kriz
Half-Spin Particles Modeled as Electromagnetic Resonance Based Micro-Black-Holes
4
1
14
14
2015-01-20
2015-01-20
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.12
© Science Publishing Group
Apparent Nuclear Transmutations without Neutron Emission Triggered by Pseudoprotons
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.13
In this paper, we review the work by Don Carlo Borghi and R. M. Santilli on the laboratory synthesis of the neutron from the proton and the electron under the laws of hadronic mechanics. We then review the prediction of a subsequent synthesis, this time, of the neutron and the electron into a new particle, known as Santilli pseudoproton, which has essentially the same characteristics of the neutron except being negatively charged. We then outline, apparently for the first time, ongoing research on esoenergetic nuclear transmutations without neutron emission that are triggered by a flux of Santilli pseudoprotons.
In this paper, we review the work by Don Carlo Borghi and R. M. Santilli on the laboratory synthesis of the neutron from the proton and the electron under the laws of hadronic mechanics. We then review the prediction of a subsequent synthesis, this time, of the neutron and the electron into a new particle, known as Santilli pseudoproton, which has essentially the same characteristics of the neutron except being negatively charged. We then outline, apparently for the first time, ongoing research on esoenergetic nuclear transmutations without neutron emission that are triggered by a flux of Santilli pseudoprotons.
Apparent Nuclear Transmutations without Neutron Emission Triggered by Pseudoprotons
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-01-23
© Science Publishing Group
Ruggero Maria Santilli
Apparent Nuclear Transmutations without Neutron Emission Triggered by Pseudoprotons
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18
18
2015-01-23
2015-01-23
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.13
© Science Publishing Group
A Non Quasi Exact Solvable Eigenvalue Problem with PT-Invariant Non-Hermitian Complex Potential
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.14
It is well known that the quasi-exact solvable eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation with potential V(x)=-(ξcosh2x-iM)2 is real for PT-invariant non-Hermitian potential in case the parameter M is odd integer and complex conjugate pairs when M is even integer. In this work the Asymptotic Iteration Method (AIM) were used to solve this problem for M odd and even integer, and for any non-integer M values.
It is well known that the quasi-exact solvable eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation with potential V(x)=-(ξcosh2x-iM)2 is real for PT-invariant non-Hermitian potential in case the parameter M is odd integer and complex conjugate pairs when M is even integer. In this work the Asymptotic Iteration Method (AIM) were used to solve this problem for M odd and even integer, and for any non-integer M values.
A Non Quasi Exact Solvable Eigenvalue Problem with PT-Invariant Non-Hermitian Complex Potential
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-01-27
© Science Publishing Group
Marwan Izzat El-Kawni
Abdulla Jameel Sous
A Non Quasi Exact Solvable Eigenvalue Problem with PT-Invariant Non-Hermitian Complex Potential
4
1
21
21
2015-01-27
2015-01-27
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.14
© Science Publishing Group
Mid-Infrared Gas Sensor for Pollutants: Case Study, Mexico City
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.15
This paper analyses the feasibility of studying the composition of the suspended particles in Mexico City, using for this study, an optical method to choose the most appropriate source of emission, depending on the environmental components. The proper choice of the emission source, allows a more correct assessment of the concentration of pollutants and their characteristics, always harmful to human health. To achieve this, is used the Mie scattering calculations, which are performed for spherical particles like here are studied.
This paper analyses the feasibility of studying the composition of the suspended particles in Mexico City, using for this study, an optical method to choose the most appropriate source of emission, depending on the environmental components. The proper choice of the emission source, allows a more correct assessment of the concentration of pollutants and their characteristics, always harmful to human health. To achieve this, is used the Mie scattering calculations, which are performed for spherical particles like here are studied.
Mid-Infrared Gas Sensor for Pollutants: Case Study, Mexico City
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-01-28
© Science Publishing Group
G. E. Sandoval-Romero
V. Argueta-Diaz
Mid-Infrared Gas Sensor for Pollutants: Case Study, Mexico City
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25
25
2015-01-28
2015-01-28
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150401.15
© Science Publishing Group
Mathematical Prediction of Ying’s Twin Universes
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.12
We review Ying’s twin universes, Santilli’s isodual theory of antimatter, and Davvaz-Santilli-Vougiouklis two-valued hyperstructures representing matter and antimatter in two distinct but co-existing spacetimes. We identify a seemingly new map for both matter and antimatter providing a mathematical prediction of Ying’s twin universes, and present a four-fold hyperstructure representing matter-antimatter as well as Ying’s twin universes, all co-existing in distinct spacetimes.
We review Ying’s twin universes, Santilli’s isodual theory of antimatter, and Davvaz-Santilli-Vougiouklis two-valued hyperstructures representing matter and antimatter in two distinct but co-existing spacetimes. We identify a seemingly new map for both matter and antimatter providing a mathematical prediction of Ying’s twin universes, and present a four-fold hyperstructure representing matter-antimatter as well as Ying’s twin universes, all co-existing in distinct spacetimes.
Mathematical Prediction of Ying’s Twin Universes
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-11-11
© Science Publishing Group
Bijan Davvaz
Ruggero Maria Santilli
Thomas Vougiouklis
Mathematical Prediction of Ying’s Twin Universes
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1
9
9
2014-11-11
2014-11-11
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.12
© Science Publishing Group
Twin Universes: Universal Laws of Thermodynamics
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.11
Big Bang is the widely accepted model of the beginning of our cosmos some 13.7 billion years ago from a single point source into its present-day expansion which is continuing at an unexplained accelerating rate. All known physical processes in our universe are governed by the laws of thermodynamics, except for the moment of creation which defies the conservation of energy even though the cosmos is the most ideal isolated system. Other observable anomalies that this single 4-dimensional space-time universal existence cannot account for include missing antimatter, rapidly rotating galaxies, faster-than-light-speed quantum entanglement and proton stability. Applying a universal conservation laws to both the fundamental quantities of energy and entropy forces the beginning of our cosmos to divide into a zero-balanced twin universes existence. This fully conserved 10-dimensional cosmos is now able to adequately explain these anomalies with model calculations that match the experimental data from cosmology and high-energy physics.
Big Bang is the widely accepted model of the beginning of our cosmos some 13.7 billion years ago from a single point source into its present-day expansion which is continuing at an unexplained accelerating rate. All known physical processes in our universe are governed by the laws of thermodynamics, except for the moment of creation which defies the conservation of energy even though the cosmos is the most ideal isolated system. Other observable anomalies that this single 4-dimensional space-time universal existence cannot account for include missing antimatter, rapidly rotating galaxies, faster-than-light-speed quantum entanglement and proton stability. Applying a universal conservation laws to both the fundamental quantities of energy and entropy forces the beginning of our cosmos to divide into a zero-balanced twin universes existence. This fully conserved 10-dimensional cosmos is now able to adequately explain these anomalies with model calculations that match the experimental data from cosmology and high-energy physics.
Twin Universes: Universal Laws of Thermodynamics
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-09-23
© Science Publishing Group
Leong Ying
Twin Universes: Universal Laws of Thermodynamics
4
1
4
4
2014-09-23
2014-09-23
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.11
© Science Publishing Group
Quiver of Hyperstructures for Ying’s Twin Universes
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.16
The quiver of hyperstructures, especially very large classes of them, can be used in new scientific theories such as Ying’s twin universes. We present the largest class of hyperstructures which can be used as a model to represent the twin universe cosmos as even more new axioms or conditions are considered.
The quiver of hyperstructures, especially very large classes of them, can be used in new scientific theories such as Ying’s twin universes. We present the largest class of hyperstructures which can be used as a model to represent the twin universe cosmos as even more new axioms or conditions are considered.
Quiver of Hyperstructures for Ying’s Twin Universes
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-12-26
© Science Publishing Group
Thomas Vougiouklis
Quiver of Hyperstructures for Ying’s Twin Universes
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1
33
33
2014-12-26
2014-12-26
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.16
© Science Publishing Group
Development of a New Type of Germanium Detector for Dark Matter Searches
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.15
A new type of germanium (Ge) detector for dark matter searches is under development utilizing the Ge crystal growth facility recently established at the University of South Dakota. Detector-grade crystals with electric impurity levels within 1010/cm3 and neutral impurity levels within 1014/cm3 have been grown regularly in the laboratory. These crystals can be fabricated into planar detectors with 1cm in thickness and 10cm in diameter. When a high voltage is applied to one of the end planes, a uniform electric field in the volume can be established. Such a design could result in a very fast electric signal. A time resolution of 1ns is expected by combining a short drift length and large drift mobility. This may allow us to resolve the difference on the electric pulse rise-time between low-energy nuclear recoil events and electronic recoil events at liquid nitrogen temperatures. An array of 168 planar detectors of this kind was modeled in a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation package. Its background reduction power was investigated and its sensitivity in dark matter search is estimated to be ~10-48cm2.
A new type of germanium (Ge) detector for dark matter searches is under development utilizing the Ge crystal growth facility recently established at the University of South Dakota. Detector-grade crystals with electric impurity levels within 1010/cm3 and neutral impurity levels within 1014/cm3 have been grown regularly in the laboratory. These crystals can be fabricated into planar detectors with 1cm in thickness and 10cm in diameter. When a high voltage is applied to one of the end planes, a uniform electric field in the volume can be established. Such a design could result in a very fast electric signal. A time resolution of 1ns is expected by combining a short drift length and large drift mobility. This may allow us to resolve the difference on the electric pulse rise-time between low-energy nuclear recoil events and electronic recoil events at liquid nitrogen temperatures. An array of 168 planar detectors of this kind was modeled in a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation package. Its background reduction power was investigated and its sensitivity in dark matter search is estimated to be ~10-48cm2.
Development of a New Type of Germanium Detector for Dark Matter Searches
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-12-26
© Science Publishing Group
Wenzhao Wei
Hao Mei
Guojian Wang
Gang Yang
Chao Zhang
Yutong Guan
Jing Liu
Dongming Mei
Christina Keller
Yiju Wang
Dahai Xu
Development of a New Type of Germanium Detector for Dark Matter Searches
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29
29
2014-12-26
2014-12-26
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.15
© Science Publishing Group
Planckon Densely Piled Vacuum
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.13
Based on the vacuum microscopic quantum structure model: the planckon densely piled vacuum model and the principle of cosmology, with the Planck era as initial conditions, we have solved the Einstein-Friedmann equations to describe the evolution of the universe. The main results are: i) the solution of Einstein-Friedmann equations have yielded the observed result：the ratio of dark energy density to vacuum quantum fluctuation energy density ρde/ρvac ~ (tp/T0)2 ~ 10-122s (the Planck time tp = 10-43s and the universe age T0 = 1018s); ii) at the inflation time tinf = 10-35s, the calculated universe radiation energy density is ρ(tinf) ~ 10-16ρvac corresponding to the phase transition temperature Ec ~ 1015GeV consistent with the GUT theory; iii) the expanding universe with vacuum as its environment is a non-equilibrium open system constantly exchanging energy with vacuum; during its expansion, the planckons in the universe lose quantum fluctuation energy and create the cosmic expansion quanta-cosmons, the energy of the cosmons is the lost vacuum quantum fluctuation energy and contributes to the universe energy with the calculated value Ecosmos = 1022Msolarc2 (where Msolar is solar mass) consistent with astronomic data; iv) since all planckons in the vacuum of the expanding universe lose quantum fluctuation energy resulting in hole excitations as negative gravity energy and the lost energy of planckons is used to create cosmons which in turn convert into different kinds of universe energy, the negative gravity energy plus the positive universe energy is zero; v) the induced negative gravity potential and the gravity acceleration due to the creation of cosmons are derived with the nature of radially outwards repulsive force, indicating that the cosmon may be the candidate of the dark energy quantum; vi) both the initial solution (the Planck era solution or the planckon solution) and the infinite asymptotic solution of the Einstein-Friedmann equations are unstable: the former tends to expand and the latter tends to shrink, so that the Einstein-Friedman universe undergoes a cyclic evolution of successive expansion and shrinking.
Based on the vacuum microscopic quantum structure model: the planckon densely piled vacuum model and the principle of cosmology, with the Planck era as initial conditions, we have solved the Einstein-Friedmann equations to describe the evolution of the universe. The main results are: i) the solution of Einstein-Friedmann equations have yielded the observed result：the ratio of dark energy density to vacuum quantum fluctuation energy density ρde/ρvac ~ (tp/T0)2 ~ 10-122s (the Planck time tp = 10-43s and the universe age T0 = 1018s); ii) at the inflation time tinf = 10-35s, the calculated universe radiation energy density is ρ(tinf) ~ 10-16ρvac corresponding to the phase transition temperature Ec ~ 1015GeV consistent with the GUT theory; iii) the expanding universe with vacuum as its environment is a non-equilibrium open system constantly exchanging energy with vacuum; during its expansion, the planckons in the universe lose quantum fluctuation energy and create the cosmic expansion quanta-cosmons, the energy of the cosmons is the lost vacuum quantum fluctuation energy and contributes to the universe energy with the calculated value Ecosmos = 1022Msolarc2 (where Msolar is solar mass) consistent with astronomic data; iv) since all planckons in the vacuum of the expanding universe lose quantum fluctuation energy resulting in hole excitations as negative gravity energy and the lost energy of planckons is used to create cosmons which in turn convert into different kinds of universe energy, the negative gravity energy plus the positive universe energy is zero; v) the induced negative gravity potential and the gravity acceleration due to the creation of cosmons are derived with the nature of radially outwards repulsive force, indicating that the cosmon may be the candidate of the dark energy quantum; vi) both the initial solution (the Planck era solution or the planckon solution) and the infinite asymptotic solution of the Einstein-Friedmann equations are unstable: the former tends to expand and the latter tends to shrink, so that the Einstein-Friedman universe undergoes a cyclic evolution of successive expansion and shrinking.
Planckon Densely Piled Vacuum
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-12-26
© Science Publishing Group
Shun-Jin Wang
Planckon Densely Piled Vacuum
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1
17
17
2014-12-26
2014-12-26
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.13
© Science Publishing Group
Gravity, Inertia and Dark Energy
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.14
Measurements of the density parameter of the universe Ω have slowly converged towards the critical value of 1, where the universe is defined to be flat and Euclidean. New data provided by the Planck probe suggest there may be a critical value for the dark energy component of this parameter ΩΛ. A physical significance may occur at ΩΛ = 2/3 and be connected with the origin of inertia. If future observations constrain ΩΛ to exactly this value, the implication is that dark energy originates in constraints provided by fundamental laws of physics on possible cosmologies for the universe.
Measurements of the density parameter of the universe Ω have slowly converged towards the critical value of 1, where the universe is defined to be flat and Euclidean. New data provided by the Planck probe suggest there may be a critical value for the dark energy component of this parameter ΩΛ. A physical significance may occur at ΩΛ = 2/3 and be connected with the origin of inertia. If future observations constrain ΩΛ to exactly this value, the implication is that dark energy originates in constraints provided by fundamental laws of physics on possible cosmologies for the universe.
Gravity, Inertia and Dark Energy
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-12-26
© Science Publishing Group
Peter Rowlands Rowlands
Gravity, Inertia and Dark Energy
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22
2014-12-26
2014-12-26
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.14
© Science Publishing Group
Physical Null Conditions: Diameter of a Black Hole Singularity
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.18
A black hole is considered a gravitational one-dimensional point of singularity containing an infinite mass within an infinitely small space, and spacetime curves infinitely. Within this singularity all the laws of physics are no longer valid. The physical domains of the large macroscopic scale are described by general relativity and on the small microscopic scale by quantum effects. It is proposed in this new theory that a black hole singularity collapses to a physically defined diameter that perfectly balances between the duality of relativity and quantum states, and in this unified equilibrium condition; physics continues to be obeyed within this non-zero non-infinite black hole singularity.
A black hole is considered a gravitational one-dimensional point of singularity containing an infinite mass within an infinitely small space, and spacetime curves infinitely. Within this singularity all the laws of physics are no longer valid. The physical domains of the large macroscopic scale are described by general relativity and on the small microscopic scale by quantum effects. It is proposed in this new theory that a black hole singularity collapses to a physically defined diameter that perfectly balances between the duality of relativity and quantum states, and in this unified equilibrium condition; physics continues to be obeyed within this non-zero non-infinite black hole singularity.
Physical Null Conditions: Diameter of a Black Hole Singularity
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.18
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-12-31
© Science Publishing Group
Leong Ying
Physical Null Conditions: Diameter of a Black Hole Singularity
4
1
45
45
2014-12-31
2014-12-31
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.18
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.18
© Science Publishing Group
Confirmation of Santilli’s Detection of Antimatter Galaxies Via a Telescope with Concave Lenses
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.17
Following decades of mathematical, theoretical, and experimental research on antimatter, recent results have announced the apparent detection of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids and antimatter cosmic rays via the use of a new telescope with concave lenses known as the Santilli telescope. This article presents results providing additional confirmations that Santilli has indeed achieved the first known detection of antimatter in the large scale structure of the universe, and identifies the main implications.
Following decades of mathematical, theoretical, and experimental research on antimatter, recent results have announced the apparent detection of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids and antimatter cosmic rays via the use of a new telescope with concave lenses known as the Santilli telescope. This article presents results providing additional confirmations that Santilli has indeed achieved the first known detection of antimatter in the large scale structure of the universe, and identifies the main implications.
Confirmation of Santilli’s Detection of Antimatter Galaxies Via a Telescope with Concave Lenses
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.17
American Journal of Modern Physics
2014-12-31
© Science Publishing Group
Simone Beghella-Bartoli
Prashant M. Bhujbal
Alex Nas
Confirmation of Santilli’s Detection of Antimatter Galaxies Via a Telescope with Concave Lenses
4
1
41
41
2014-12-31
2014-12-31
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.17
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040101.17
© Science Publishing Group
Experimental Assessment of Specific Absorption Rate Using Measured Electric Field Strength in Benson Idahosa University and Environs
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.16
There has been growing concern in Nigeria and even the world at large that exposure to radiation from base stations and mobile handsets could lead to increased risk of illnesses such as cancer and may adversely affect cognitive functions like concentration and may cause memory loss, headaches, dizziness and epilepsy among others. In the present paper, the Assessment of RF radiation in the far-field from selected mobile base station sites in BIU and environs, Benin City, Nigeria has been carried out using a handheld three-axis radio frequency meter (EMF meter) for measurement of Electric field. The meter is a broad band device for monitoring high frequency radiation in range of 50 MHz to 3.6GHz. It is used in three-axis (isotropic) measurement mode. The electric field strength of RF radiation within a radial distance of the range 0- 100m was measured with the RF meter. The average values of the Specific absorption rate (SAR) for the general public was estimated from the measured electric field strength and the values gotten were compared with International commission on Non-ionizing radiation. Results shows that the values of the SAR for the eighth base stations selected for the study are within the range of 0.00010W/Kg- 0.0012W/Kg. These values are quite lower than the limit by International Commission on Non –ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) which is 0.08W/Kg for the whole body average SAR. This may indicate that there is no significant health risk for the general public that are always the vicinity of the Far field of the selected base stations for the various mobile service provider the area.
There has been growing concern in Nigeria and even the world at large that exposure to radiation from base stations and mobile handsets could lead to increased risk of illnesses such as cancer and may adversely affect cognitive functions like concentration and may cause memory loss, headaches, dizziness and epilepsy among others. In the present paper, the Assessment of RF radiation in the far-field from selected mobile base station sites in BIU and environs, Benin City, Nigeria has been carried out using a handheld three-axis radio frequency meter (EMF meter) for measurement of Electric field. The meter is a broad band device for monitoring high frequency radiation in range of 50 MHz to 3.6GHz. It is used in three-axis (isotropic) measurement mode. The electric field strength of RF radiation within a radial distance of the range 0- 100m was measured with the RF meter. The average values of the Specific absorption rate (SAR) for the general public was estimated from the measured electric field strength and the values gotten were compared with International commission on Non-ionizing radiation. Results shows that the values of the SAR for the eighth base stations selected for the study are within the range of 0.00010W/Kg- 0.0012W/Kg. These values are quite lower than the limit by International Commission on Non –ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) which is 0.08W/Kg for the whole body average SAR. This may indicate that there is no significant health risk for the general public that are always the vicinity of the Far field of the selected base stations for the various mobile service provider the area.
Experimental Assessment of Specific Absorption Rate Using Measured Electric Field Strength in Benson Idahosa University and Environs
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-04-09
© Science Publishing Group
Isabona Joseph
Ojuh Osamiromwen Divine
Experimental Assessment of Specific Absorption Rate Using Measured Electric Field Strength in Benson Idahosa University and Environs
4
2
96
96
2015-04-09
2015-04-09
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.16
© Science Publishing Group
Study on Structural, Electronic, Optical and Mechanical Properties of MAX Phase Compounds and Applications Review Article
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.15
The term “MAX phase” refers to a very interesting and important class of layered ternary transition-metal carbides and nitrides with a novel combination of both metal and ceramic-like properties that have made these materials highly regarded candidates for numerous technological and engineering applications. A relatively new class of transition metal layered compounds Mn+1AXn, (MAX phases) where M is an early transition metal, A is a group A element most likely Al, and X is C or N with n = 1, 2, 3………..Due to their unique structural arrangements and directional bonding, these ternary compounds possess some very outstanding mechanical and chemical properties such as damage-resistance, oxidation resistance, excellent thermal and electric conductivity, machinability, and fully reversible dislocation-based deformation. These properties can be explored in the search for new phases and their composites to meet the performance goals of advanced materials with applications in fossil energy conversion technology. Systematic and detailed computational studies on MAX phase compounds can provide fundamental understanding of the key characteristics that lead to these desirable properties and to the discovery of other new and better alloys.In this paper, we review on structural, electronic, optical and mechanical properties of around 50 MAX phase compounds and their applications. From the comparative study on the result of these compounds we think that this paper will enable to researcher to explore and predict new MAX phases and new composite alloys with better physical properties as advanced materials for various applications at extreme conditions.
The term “MAX phase” refers to a very interesting and important class of layered ternary transition-metal carbides and nitrides with a novel combination of both metal and ceramic-like properties that have made these materials highly regarded candidates for numerous technological and engineering applications. A relatively new class of transition metal layered compounds Mn+1AXn, (MAX phases) where M is an early transition metal, A is a group A element most likely Al, and X is C or N with n = 1, 2, 3………..Due to their unique structural arrangements and directional bonding, these ternary compounds possess some very outstanding mechanical and chemical properties such as damage-resistance, oxidation resistance, excellent thermal and electric conductivity, machinability, and fully reversible dislocation-based deformation. These properties can be explored in the search for new phases and their composites to meet the performance goals of advanced materials with applications in fossil energy conversion technology. Systematic and detailed computational studies on MAX phase compounds can provide fundamental understanding of the key characteristics that lead to these desirable properties and to the discovery of other new and better alloys.In this paper, we review on structural, electronic, optical and mechanical properties of around 50 MAX phase compounds and their applications. From the comparative study on the result of these compounds we think that this paper will enable to researcher to explore and predict new MAX phases and new composite alloys with better physical properties as advanced materials for various applications at extreme conditions.
Study on Structural, Electronic, Optical and Mechanical Properties of MAX Phase Compounds and Applications Review Article
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-04-09
© Science Publishing Group
Md. Atikur Rahman
Md. Zahidur Rahaman
Study on Structural, Electronic, Optical and Mechanical Properties of MAX Phase Compounds and Applications Review Article
4
2
91
91
2015-04-09
2015-04-09
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.15
© Science Publishing Group
An Algebraic Operator Approach to Aharonov-Bohm Effect
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.12
A new approach based on algebraic quantum operator, is pursued in order to investigate the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Introducing a SU(2) dynamical invariance algebra, the discrete spectrum and the energy level of the quantum Aharonov-Bohm effect is obtained. This alternative method will help undergraduate students to broader their knowledge about this interesting quantum phenomenon.
A new approach based on algebraic quantum operator, is pursued in order to investigate the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Introducing a SU(2) dynamical invariance algebra, the discrete spectrum and the energy level of the quantum Aharonov-Bohm effect is obtained. This alternative method will help undergraduate students to broader their knowledge about this interesting quantum phenomenon.
An Algebraic Operator Approach to Aharonov-Bohm Effect
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-02-26
© Science Publishing Group
Farrin Payandeh
An Algebraic Operator Approach to Aharonov-Bohm Effect
4
2
49
49
2015-02-26
2015-02-26
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.12
© Science Publishing Group
Spacetime or, Space-Energy Universe
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.13
This article is Supplementary of my prior [38], where was shown in, Flow Plan, that Energy-Space universe (the beyond Planck`s length, Gravity`s and Spaces` levels) is [PNS] Space Anti-Space as work → W = ∫ P. ds = 0, which is the cause of Spaces existence. Also, are Presented the fundamental equations of [PNS], unifying the known homogenous Euclidean geometry (|λ|=λ) and the source term Energy (ds ̅. dP=λ. Λ=constant K1, 2, 3 with motion Λ), and imbedding in them all conservation physical laws with the only two quantized magnitudes λ, (Λ ) ̅on Monad ĀB., i. e. The Space-Energy Universe. Breakages [s²= ± (w ̅. r)²] in Inertial systems consist [MFMF] Field and [i] =2(w ̅. r)² the Gravity force. Momentum as velocity → [velocity= v ̅g = the breakage 2(w ̅r)² ], is the cross product of two velocity vectors v ̅1, v ̅2, which form on Medium→ |±(w ̅. r)²| = |λ| the Intrinsic Electromagnetic Stationary Field →[Electric (E) ┴ Magnetic (P)], following the cycloid motion. Breakages and Particles with velocity, v ̅, being the units of matter with Electric charge, q=λm, as their physical property is, when placed in prior referred Electromagnetic Field E┴P, where like charges repel and unlike charges attract, experience a force as Lorentz force, and this is called Gravity- Force, and equal to → Fg = q. [E+ v ̅xP] ← where also Gravity- Field → Gf = [E+ v ̅xP] ←. Analysis of the, Intrinsic Stationary Electromagnetic wave of particles, and a wide critic in Mechanics and Relativity is added.
This article is Supplementary of my prior [38], where was shown in, Flow Plan, that Energy-Space universe (the beyond Planck`s length, Gravity`s and Spaces` levels) is [PNS] Space Anti-Space as work → W = ∫ P. ds = 0, which is the cause of Spaces existence. Also, are Presented the fundamental equations of [PNS], unifying the known homogenous Euclidean geometry (|λ|=λ) and the source term Energy (ds ̅. dP=λ. Λ=constant K1, 2, 3 with motion Λ), and imbedding in them all conservation physical laws with the only two quantized magnitudes λ, (Λ ) ̅on Monad ĀB., i. e. The Space-Energy Universe. Breakages [s²= ± (w ̅. r)²] in Inertial systems consist [MFMF] Field and [i] =2(w ̅. r)² the Gravity force. Momentum as velocity → [velocity= v ̅g = the breakage 2(w ̅r)² ], is the cross product of two velocity vectors v ̅1, v ̅2, which form on Medium→ |±(w ̅. r)²| = |λ| the Intrinsic Electromagnetic Stationary Field →[Electric (E) ┴ Magnetic (P)], following the cycloid motion. Breakages and Particles with velocity, v ̅, being the units of matter with Electric charge, q=λm, as their physical property is, when placed in prior referred Electromagnetic Field E┴P, where like charges repel and unlike charges attract, experience a force as Lorentz force, and this is called Gravity- Force, and equal to → Fg = q. [E+ v ̅xP] ← where also Gravity- Field → Gf = [E+ v ̅xP] ←. Analysis of the, Intrinsic Stationary Electromagnetic wave of particles, and a wide critic in Mechanics and Relativity is added.
Spacetime or, Space-Energy Universe
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-06
© Science Publishing Group
Markos Georgallides
Spacetime or, Space-Energy Universe
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69
69
2015-03-06
2015-03-06
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.13
© Science Publishing Group
First Order Expectation Values of Electron Correlation Operators for Two-Electron Atoms
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.14
Simple analytic first-order wave functions corresponding to two-electron atoms electron correlation operators are obtained by reduction of the Rayleigh-Schrödinger first order perturbation equation to that of one-electron through the partial integration over the variables of one electron. The resulting first order wave functions are applied to evaluate the first order expectation values of electron correlation operators associated with the radial correlation, magnetic shielding and diamagnetic susceptibility. The results obtained have close agreement with other theoretical results.
Simple analytic first-order wave functions corresponding to two-electron atoms electron correlation operators are obtained by reduction of the Rayleigh-Schrödinger first order perturbation equation to that of one-electron through the partial integration over the variables of one electron. The resulting first order wave functions are applied to evaluate the first order expectation values of electron correlation operators associated with the radial correlation, magnetic shielding and diamagnetic susceptibility. The results obtained have close agreement with other theoretical results.
First Order Expectation Values of Electron Correlation Operators for Two-Electron Atoms
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-06
© Science Publishing Group
Boniface Otieno Ndinya
Florence Mutonyi D’ujanga
Jacob Olawo Oduogo
Andrew Odhiambo Oduor
Joseph Omolo Akeyo
First Order Expectation Values of Electron Correlation Operators for Two-Electron Atoms
4
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74
74
2015-03-06
2015-03-06
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.14
© Science Publishing Group
Representation of Galactic Dynamics Via Isoshifts Without Universe Expansion, Dark Matter and Dark Energy
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.11
In this paper, we outline mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies by the author on the anomalous redshifts (blueshifts) of light passing through cold (hot) gases without relative motion, that are known as Santilli isoredshifts (isoblueshifts); we review the rather vast experimental and visual evidence on the lack of expansion of the universe and related cosmological conjectures, including the lack of acceleration, big bang and dark energy; we recall a number of insufficiencies of the conjecture of dark matter, with particular reference to its lack of quantitative representation of anomalous redshifts of galactic stars;we then present, apparently for the first time, a quantitative and time invariant representation of the anomalous redshift of galactic stars via Santilli isoredshifts and isoblueshifts without dark matter by merely admitting the astrophysical evidence that galaxies are indeed filled up with an actual, physical, detectable, gaseous medium causing deviations from the Doppler shift law; and we point out that the emerging new vistas of the universe do preserve Einstein’s axioms of special relativity and merely require broader realizations.
In this paper, we outline mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies by the author on the anomalous redshifts (blueshifts) of light passing through cold (hot) gases without relative motion, that are known as Santilli isoredshifts (isoblueshifts); we review the rather vast experimental and visual evidence on the lack of expansion of the universe and related cosmological conjectures, including the lack of acceleration, big bang and dark energy; we recall a number of insufficiencies of the conjecture of dark matter, with particular reference to its lack of quantitative representation of anomalous redshifts of galactic stars;we then present, apparently for the first time, a quantitative and time invariant representation of the anomalous redshift of galactic stars via Santilli isoredshifts and isoblueshifts without dark matter by merely admitting the astrophysical evidence that galaxies are indeed filled up with an actual, physical, detectable, gaseous medium causing deviations from the Doppler shift law; and we point out that the emerging new vistas of the universe do preserve Einstein’s axioms of special relativity and merely require broader realizations.
Representation of Galactic Dynamics Via Isoshifts Without Universe Expansion, Dark Matter and Dark Energy
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-02-25
© Science Publishing Group
Ruggero Maria Santilli
Representation of Galactic Dynamics Via Isoshifts Without Universe Expansion, Dark Matter and Dark Energy
4
2
43
43
2015-02-25
2015-02-25
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.11
© Science Publishing Group
Time Origin and Universe Uniform Expanding
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.12
A new cosmological hypothesis is considered which states that our Universe is a black hole in some external world. Because of that it expands linearly depending on so-called Parametric Time. For such the model we use the typical Einstein-Friedmann’s equation system, but non-standard boundary conditions should be applied. A number of results are established that are indicative of the model efficacy.
A new cosmological hypothesis is considered which states that our Universe is a black hole in some external world. Because of that it expands linearly depending on so-called Parametric Time. For such the model we use the typical Einstein-Friedmann’s equation system, but non-standard boundary conditions should be applied. A number of results are established that are indicative of the model efficacy.
Time Origin and Universe Uniform Expanding
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-01-29
© Science Publishing Group
Michael H. Shulman
Time Origin and Universe Uniform Expanding
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2
14
14
2015-01-29
2015-01-29
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.12
© Science Publishing Group
Infinite-Dimensional Multievents Space-Time of Minkowski and Everett’s Axiom of Parallelism
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.11
In this work we consider the meaningfulness of the concept "parallel worlds". To that extent we propose the model of the infinite-dimensionaly multievents space, generating everettics altervers in each point of Minkowski’s space time. Our research reveals fractal character of such alterverse. It was also found that in Minkowski's space {x, ict} the past actively influences the present, whereas the future is a conservative factor – it slows down already occuring processes and interferes with actualization of the latent ones. Fast fusions formation is predicted based on modeling of fractal dynamics of. It was also found that the alterverse branches grow in non-Markov fashion; some of this feature are discussed. The concept "fractal parallelism according to Everett" is proposed. Inevitable inaccuracy of the model is also discussed.
In this work we consider the meaningfulness of the concept "parallel worlds". To that extent we propose the model of the infinite-dimensionaly multievents space, generating everettics altervers in each point of Minkowski’s space time. Our research reveals fractal character of such alterverse. It was also found that in Minkowski's space {x, ict} the past actively influences the present, whereas the future is a conservative factor – it slows down already occuring processes and interferes with actualization of the latent ones. Fast fusions formation is predicted based on modeling of fractal dynamics of. It was also found that the alterverse branches grow in non-Markov fashion; some of this feature are discussed. The concept "fractal parallelism according to Everett" is proposed. Inevitable inaccuracy of the model is also discussed.
Infinite-Dimensional Multievents Space-Time of Minkowski and Everett’s Axiom of Parallelism
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-01-29
© Science Publishing Group
Yury A. Lebedev
Pavel R. Amnuel
Anna Ya. Dulphan
Infinite-Dimensional Multievents Space-Time of Minkowski and Everett’s Axiom of Parallelism
4
2
8
8
2015-01-29
2015-01-29
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.11
© Science Publishing Group
Existential Theory of Time
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.14
Thinking about existence takes one to the idea of alter. Essentially, the ideas alter in mind. Matter alters with the observation of position, shape, size, color, temperature and other ascriptions of matter (Aristotle, Ross W D, 1942). Conscious time of observation and momentum are the mainstay of mechanics of physics. Mind proposes these. This paper presents that the basic idea of existence of matter extends to yet inactive essence of ideas of energy, time and space together (Plato’s essence); and that conclave comes as “second” or “blackboard ideas” about alter. Thence, energy is enabled; time becomes conscious time of observation and space an infinite expanse to house work (Plato’s manifestation). They function if energy works on matter in space while conscious time allows observation. The link is momentum that comes as energy works and moves matter in space. At the third stage, or at the emergence of manifestation from existence and essence, alter takes place and it is observed with conscious time. This paper stipulates that in this foundational scenario, time is the first of all concepts [1]. Time plays different roles in inquiring about existence, realizing the essence of alter and manifestation of alter. The analysis leads to that every part of space where work is done, must have, uniformly and unexceptionally, at least one unit of energy and at least one unit of mass or “things”. In other words, no part of the universe is empty or free of energy and “things”. Event takes place because of the interplay of energy and things. Event does not need observation. If observed, then it is conscious time that makes observer aware about an event. Time’s existence is not relational to event. Conscious time does not generate event; or it plays no role in generating event. Event shall generate whether or not observer observed it. Time is not the substance of event. That trashes a lot of experimental work of the last and this century done until now. Such is the vade mecum of observation with conscious time that a definition of time emerges. This existential theory of time is wholly compatible to quantum theory. There are more types of time like memory time, dreamtime, imagination time that are not event oriented.
Thinking about existence takes one to the idea of alter. Essentially, the ideas alter in mind. Matter alters with the observation of position, shape, size, color, temperature and other ascriptions of matter (Aristotle, Ross W D, 1942). Conscious time of observation and momentum are the mainstay of mechanics of physics. Mind proposes these. This paper presents that the basic idea of existence of matter extends to yet inactive essence of ideas of energy, time and space together (Plato’s essence); and that conclave comes as “second” or “blackboard ideas” about alter. Thence, energy is enabled; time becomes conscious time of observation and space an infinite expanse to house work (Plato’s manifestation). They function if energy works on matter in space while conscious time allows observation. The link is momentum that comes as energy works and moves matter in space. At the third stage, or at the emergence of manifestation from existence and essence, alter takes place and it is observed with conscious time. This paper stipulates that in this foundational scenario, time is the first of all concepts [1]. Time plays different roles in inquiring about existence, realizing the essence of alter and manifestation of alter. The analysis leads to that every part of space where work is done, must have, uniformly and unexceptionally, at least one unit of energy and at least one unit of mass or “things”. In other words, no part of the universe is empty or free of energy and “things”. Event takes place because of the interplay of energy and things. Event does not need observation. If observed, then it is conscious time that makes observer aware about an event. Time’s existence is not relational to event. Conscious time does not generate event; or it plays no role in generating event. Event shall generate whether or not observer observed it. Time is not the substance of event. That trashes a lot of experimental work of the last and this century done until now. Such is the vade mecum of observation with conscious time that a definition of time emerges. This existential theory of time is wholly compatible to quantum theory. There are more types of time like memory time, dreamtime, imagination time that are not event oriented.
Existential Theory of Time
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-05
© Science Publishing Group
Jitendra Kumar Barthakur
Existential Theory of Time
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25
25
2015-03-05
2015-03-05
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.14
© Science Publishing Group
Relativity of Time and Instantaneous Interaction of Charged Particles
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.13
The interaction between charged particles through quasi-static fields must occur instantaneously; otherwise a violation of the energy principle would occur. As a consequence, the instantaneous transmission of both energy and information over macroscopic distances is feasible by using the quasi-static fields which are predicted by Maxwell’s equations. This finding is incompatible with the «relative simultaneity» following from the time transformation postulated by the special theory of rela-tivity.
The interaction between charged particles through quasi-static fields must occur instantaneously; otherwise a violation of the energy principle would occur. As a consequence, the instantaneous transmission of both energy and information over macroscopic distances is feasible by using the quasi-static fields which are predicted by Maxwell’s equations. This finding is incompatible with the «relative simultaneity» following from the time transformation postulated by the special theory of rela-tivity.
Relativity of Time and Instantaneous Interaction of Charged Particles
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-05
© Science Publishing Group
Wolfgang Engelhardt
Relativity of Time and Instantaneous Interaction of Charged Particles
4
2
18
18
2015-03-05
2015-03-05
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.13
© Science Publishing Group
Anomalous Behavior of Ultra-Relativistic Particles – a Phenomenon That Can Confirm the Discreteness of Time
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.16
The paper analyses physical phenomenon which can give evidence of discreteness of time. The phenomenon is substitution of wave function of ultrarelativistic particle in terms of certain (hyper-ultrarelativistic) values of its space motion velocity. Discreteness of time is necessary criterion for such a substitution. The paper has developed mathematical description for particle energy (frequency) anomalous dependence on its velocity in the context of frequency substitution resulting from discreteness of time. Moreover, there have been obtained estimations of maximum energy of a particle of the given mass, maximum particle mass as well as a value of its own time quantum.
The paper analyses physical phenomenon which can give evidence of discreteness of time. The phenomenon is substitution of wave function of ultrarelativistic particle in terms of certain (hyper-ultrarelativistic) values of its space motion velocity. Discreteness of time is necessary criterion for such a substitution. The paper has developed mathematical description for particle energy (frequency) anomalous dependence on its velocity in the context of frequency substitution resulting from discreteness of time. Moreover, there have been obtained estimations of maximum energy of a particle of the given mass, maximum particle mass as well as a value of its own time quantum.
Anomalous Behavior of Ultra-Relativistic Particles – a Phenomenon That Can Confirm the Discreteness of Time
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-04-23
© Science Publishing Group
Alexander Zaslavsky
Anomalous Behavior of Ultra-Relativistic Particles – a Phenomenon That Can Confirm the Discreteness of Time
4
2
40
40
2015-04-23
2015-04-23
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.16
© Science Publishing Group
Triplet Paradox in Special Relativity and Discrepancy with Electromagnetism
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.15
Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is considered to be compatible with classical electrodynamics. However, there are several logically deduced discrepancies inherent in SRT itself, which are called “paradoxes” and demand scrupulous examination. The “twin paradox” is most well-known. In this paper a new thought experiment, including three different observers (triplets) is presented. As opposed to the notorious “twin paradox” we suggest a case where two persons are moving in opposite directions in a manner symmetrical to the basic frame of reference being fixed. This consideration leads to the fundamental notion of physics of time controlling causality as an indispensable element of every scientific view. This is a pivotal tenet of SRT – “relativity of simultaneity” that is subjected to violation, in which case the ability of lawful implementation for Lorentz transform gets in doubt. Moreover, the consistent implementation of SRT in electromagnetism leads to breakdown of the equivalence principle in the realm of General Relativity.
Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is considered to be compatible with classical electrodynamics. However, there are several logically deduced discrepancies inherent in SRT itself, which are called “paradoxes” and demand scrupulous examination. The “twin paradox” is most well-known. In this paper a new thought experiment, including three different observers (triplets) is presented. As opposed to the notorious “twin paradox” we suggest a case where two persons are moving in opposite directions in a manner symmetrical to the basic frame of reference being fixed. This consideration leads to the fundamental notion of physics of time controlling causality as an indispensable element of every scientific view. This is a pivotal tenet of SRT – “relativity of simultaneity” that is subjected to violation, in which case the ability of lawful implementation for Lorentz transform gets in doubt. Moreover, the consistent implementation of SRT in electromagnetism leads to breakdown of the equivalence principle in the realm of General Relativity.
Triplet Paradox in Special Relativity and Discrepancy with Electromagnetism
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-12
© Science Publishing Group
Vladimir Alexandr Leus
Triplet Paradox in Special Relativity and Discrepancy with Electromagnetism
4
2
33
33
2015-03-12
2015-03-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040201.15
© Science Publishing Group
A Theoretical Confirmation of the Gravitation New Origin Having a Dipolar Electrical Nature with Coulomb Law Corrected
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.11
The paper starts by analyzing the actual justification of the separation existing between electrical and gravitational forces, considering that for neutral bodies the electrical interaction force at long distances r, totally cancels as equal and opposed +/- forces FC, given by Coulomb law. Initially it was demonstrated that the type of the force FD, attraction or repulsion, between two electrical dipoles, having the same orientation, is given by the variation mode of the electrical forces FC with the r distance. In this paper one demonstrates that this electrical dipole force FD may exist at any distance r, by reciprocal orientation of any two dipoles. But such dipole force FD depends on a term in 1/r4 or greater power, being negligible compared to the gravitational force FN, which in Newton’s law depends on 1/r2. In order to obtain the principal term in 1/r2, for dipole interaction FD, it was necessary and sufficiently to admit a hypothesis which considers a new Coulomb law force FCC, as a series of terms of powers of r, including a new term of the form –ln r. With this corrected Coulomb law force FCC, for dipole interaction new force FDC, an expression having the principal term in 1/r2 results, as in Newton’s law. In order to verify the above hypothesis, numerical checking for the new dipole force FDC with first 4 terms of series was performed, utilizing actual electric permeability, the constant ε0 corrected, in all the terms. These calculations made for an astronomical distance (109m), showed a good agreement (relative ratio R=FN/FDC ≈ 0.626) between the force FN given by Newton’s law and the dipole force FDC obtained with the corrected Coulomb law. On the basis of this gravity theory, some important consequences result, such as the inexistence of the gravitational waves, of the black holes, of the space gravitational curvature, and of the big-bang. This gravity theory with more than 4 terms of series yield all of the four known forces in nature, so unifying them. The new dipolar gravity theory is physically possible only in quantum manifestation of the charges, and admitting the presence of a continuum media (a modern ether) as physical support of electromagnetic interactions.
The paper starts by analyzing the actual justification of the separation existing between electrical and gravitational forces, considering that for neutral bodies the electrical interaction force at long distances r, totally cancels as equal and opposed +/- forces FC, given by Coulomb law. Initially it was demonstrated that the type of the force FD, attraction or repulsion, between two electrical dipoles, having the same orientation, is given by the variation mode of the electrical forces FC with the r distance. In this paper one demonstrates that this electrical dipole force FD may exist at any distance r, by reciprocal orientation of any two dipoles. But such dipole force FD depends on a term in 1/r4 or greater power, being negligible compared to the gravitational force FN, which in Newton’s law depends on 1/r2. In order to obtain the principal term in 1/r2, for dipole interaction FD, it was necessary and sufficiently to admit a hypothesis which considers a new Coulomb law force FCC, as a series of terms of powers of r, including a new term of the form –ln r. With this corrected Coulomb law force FCC, for dipole interaction new force FDC, an expression having the principal term in 1/r2 results, as in Newton’s law. In order to verify the above hypothesis, numerical checking for the new dipole force FDC with first 4 terms of series was performed, utilizing actual electric permeability, the constant ε0 corrected, in all the terms. These calculations made for an astronomical distance (109m), showed a good agreement (relative ratio R=FN/FDC ≈ 0.626) between the force FN given by Newton’s law and the dipole force FDC obtained with the corrected Coulomb law. On the basis of this gravity theory, some important consequences result, such as the inexistence of the gravitational waves, of the black holes, of the space gravitational curvature, and of the big-bang. This gravity theory with more than 4 terms of series yield all of the four known forces in nature, so unifying them. The new dipolar gravity theory is physically possible only in quantum manifestation of the charges, and admitting the presence of a continuum media (a modern ether) as physical support of electromagnetic interactions.
A Theoretical Confirmation of the Gravitation New Origin Having a Dipolar Electrical Nature with Coulomb Law Corrected
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-04-22
© Science Publishing Group
Ioan Has
Simona Miclaus
Aurelian Has
A Theoretical Confirmation of the Gravitation New Origin Having a Dipolar Electrical Nature with Coulomb Law Corrected
4
3
108
108
2015-04-22
2015-04-22
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.11
© Science Publishing Group
Bound Magnetopolaron in an Asymmetric Cylindrical Quantum Dot Qubit in an Electric Field
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.12
We investigate a quantum mechanical system defined as an unsymmetrical bound magnetopolaron immersed in the field of the bulk longitudinal optical (LO)-phonon strong coupling. The ground and the first-excited state of the eigenenergy are derived by using variational method of Pekar type. The effect of the longitudinal and transversal confinement strengths, the effect of magnetic and electric field and the effect of the electron-phonon coupling constant on the polaron characteristics are investigated. These dependencies demonstrate that, they are more flexible tunable methods to restrain quantum decoherence and aggrandize the amplitude of the probability density.
We investigate a quantum mechanical system defined as an unsymmetrical bound magnetopolaron immersed in the field of the bulk longitudinal optical (LO)-phonon strong coupling. The ground and the first-excited state of the eigenenergy are derived by using variational method of Pekar type. The effect of the longitudinal and transversal confinement strengths, the effect of magnetic and electric field and the effect of the electron-phonon coupling constant on the polaron characteristics are investigated. These dependencies demonstrate that, they are more flexible tunable methods to restrain quantum decoherence and aggrandize the amplitude of the probability density.
Bound Magnetopolaron in an Asymmetric Cylindrical Quantum Dot Qubit in an Electric Field
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-04-28
© Science Publishing Group
Alain Jerve Fotue
Maurice Tiotsop
Nsangou Issofa
Sadem Christian Kenfack
Amos Virngo Wirngo
Hilaire Fotsin
Lukong Cornelius Fai
Bound Magnetopolaron in an Asymmetric Cylindrical Quantum Dot Qubit in an Electric Field
4
3
117
117
2015-04-28
2015-04-28
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.12
© Science Publishing Group
An Electromagnetic Resonance Based Interpretation of Quantum Theory
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.14
An electromagnetic (EM) resonance based model derived from Maxwell's Equations is used with constraint conditions to characterize the quantum properties of both matter particles and photons. The model, as constrained by integer spin-orbit ratio, integer multiples of Planck's constant, angular momentum balance, charge balance, and EM resonance form, yields analytical results that are comparable to those from traditional quantum mechanics (QM), and electrodynamics (QED), but obtained with reduced analytical effort. EM compound resonance models are used to characterize quantum chromodymanics (QCD) quarks in neutrons and protons. It is also shown that EM resonance models give evidence that supports QCD “color-confinement” and “color-change” concepts. Analysis is limited to steady-state resonance forms.
An electromagnetic (EM) resonance based model derived from Maxwell's Equations is used with constraint conditions to characterize the quantum properties of both matter particles and photons. The model, as constrained by integer spin-orbit ratio, integer multiples of Planck's constant, angular momentum balance, charge balance, and EM resonance form, yields analytical results that are comparable to those from traditional quantum mechanics (QM), and electrodynamics (QED), but obtained with reduced analytical effort. EM compound resonance models are used to characterize quantum chromodymanics (QCD) quarks in neutrons and protons. It is also shown that EM resonance models give evidence that supports QCD “color-confinement” and “color-change” concepts. Analysis is limited to steady-state resonance forms.
An Electromagnetic Resonance Based Interpretation of Quantum Theory
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-05-15
© Science Publishing Group
Thomas A. Kriz
An Electromagnetic Resonance Based Interpretation of Quantum Theory
4
3
131
131
2015-05-15
2015-05-15
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.14
© Science Publishing Group
Charged Thin Shell Wormholes with Variable Equations of State
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.13
Using the Darmois-Israel formalism the dynamical analysis of Reissner Nordstrom (RN) thin shell wormholes, at the wormhole throat, are determined by considering linearized radial perturbations around static solutions. Linearized stability of thin-shell wormholes with barotropic equation of state (EoS) and with two different EoS is derived. In the first case of variable EoS, with regular coefficients, a sequence of semi-infinite stability regions is found such that every throat in equilibrium becomes stable for a particular subsequence. In the second case, a singular EoS (in such variable EoS the coefficients is explicitly dependent on throat radius), the second derivative of the effective potential is positive definite, so linearized stability is guaranteed for every equilibrium radius.
Using the Darmois-Israel formalism the dynamical analysis of Reissner Nordstrom (RN) thin shell wormholes, at the wormhole throat, are determined by considering linearized radial perturbations around static solutions. Linearized stability of thin-shell wormholes with barotropic equation of state (EoS) and with two different EoS is derived. In the first case of variable EoS, with regular coefficients, a sequence of semi-infinite stability regions is found such that every throat in equilibrium becomes stable for a particular subsequence. In the second case, a singular EoS (in such variable EoS the coefficients is explicitly dependent on throat radius), the second derivative of the effective potential is positive definite, so linearized stability is guaranteed for every equilibrium radius.
Charged Thin Shell Wormholes with Variable Equations of State
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-05-09
© Science Publishing Group
Ali Eid
Charged Thin Shell Wormholes with Variable Equations of State
4
3
124
124
2015-05-09
2015-05-09
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.13
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Spectrum of Ejected Electrons of H(2P) Ionization by Electrons in Coplanar Asymmetric Geometry
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.15
We have investigated the energy spectrum of ejected electrons of hydrogen atoms ionization from metastable 2P state by electrons in coplanar asymmetric geometry. A multiple scattering theory of Das and Seal is applied. The present results show very interesting binary peak features. As well as a significant qualitative agreement with hydrogenic ground state results is obtained. New theoretical results and experimental verification for such treatment in hydrogenic metastable states by electrons will be interesting.
We have investigated the energy spectrum of ejected electrons of hydrogen atoms ionization from metastable 2P state by electrons in coplanar asymmetric geometry. A multiple scattering theory of Das and Seal is applied. The present results show very interesting binary peak features. As well as a significant qualitative agreement with hydrogenic ground state results is obtained. New theoretical results and experimental verification for such treatment in hydrogenic metastable states by electrons will be interesting.
Energy Spectrum of Ejected Electrons of H(2P) Ionization by Electrons in Coplanar Asymmetric Geometry
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-05-27
© Science Publishing Group
Sunil Dhar
Nurun Nahar
Energy Spectrum of Ejected Electrons of H(2P) Ionization by Electrons in Coplanar Asymmetric Geometry
4
3
137
137
2015-05-27
2015-05-27
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.15
© Science Publishing Group
Decoherence of Polaron in Asymmetric Quantum Dot Qubit Under an Electromagnetic Field
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.16
In this paper, we investigate the time evolution of the quantum mechanical state of a polaron using the Pekar type variational method on the electric-LO-phonon and the magnetic-LO-phonon strong coupling in a quantum dot. We obtain the Eigen energies and the Eigen functions of the ground state and the first excited state, respectively. In a quantum dot, this system can be viewed as a two level quantum system qubit. The superposition state polaron density oscillates in the quantum dot with a period τ_0when the polaron is in the superposition of the ground and the first-excited states. The spontaneous emission of phonons causes the decoherence of the qubit. We show that the density matrix of the qubit decays with the time while the coherence term of the density matrix element 〖 p〗_01 (〖 or p〗_10) decays with the time as well for different coupling strengths, conﬁnement lengths, and dispersion coefficients. The Shannon entropy is evaluated in order to investigate the decoherence of the system.
In this paper, we investigate the time evolution of the quantum mechanical state of a polaron using the Pekar type variational method on the electric-LO-phonon and the magnetic-LO-phonon strong coupling in a quantum dot. We obtain the Eigen energies and the Eigen functions of the ground state and the first excited state, respectively. In a quantum dot, this system can be viewed as a two level quantum system qubit. The superposition state polaron density oscillates in the quantum dot with a period τ_0when the polaron is in the superposition of the ground and the first-excited states. The spontaneous emission of phonons causes the decoherence of the qubit. We show that the density matrix of the qubit decays with the time while the coherence term of the density matrix element 〖 p〗_01 (〖 or p〗_10) decays with the time as well for different coupling strengths, conﬁnement lengths, and dispersion coefficients. The Shannon entropy is evaluated in order to investigate the decoherence of the system.
Decoherence of Polaron in Asymmetric Quantum Dot Qubit Under an Electromagnetic Field
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-06-05
© Science Publishing Group
Alain Jerve Fotue
Sadem Christian Kenfack
Nsangou Issofa
Maurice Tiotsop
Michel Pascal Tabue Djemmo
Amos Veyongni Wirngo
Hilaire Fotsin
Lukong Cornelius Fai
Decoherence of Polaron in Asymmetric Quantum Dot Qubit Under an Electromagnetic Field
4
3
148
148
2015-06-05
2015-06-05
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150403.16
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Levels Calculations of 32Cl and 33Cl Isotopes
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.13
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Chlorine isotopes 32Cl and 33Cl are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state of excitation energy evaluated by OXBASH code together with energy levels and also probable places for nucleons placements in each energy level. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Chlorine isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Chlorine isotopes 32Cl and 33Cl are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state of excitation energy evaluated by OXBASH code together with energy levels and also probable places for nucleons placements in each energy level. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Chlorine isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Energy Levels Calculations of 32Cl and 33Cl Isotopes
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-02
© Science Publishing Group
Saeed Mohammadi
Monna Chobbdar
Energy Levels Calculations of 32Cl and 33Cl Isotopes
4
3
14
14
2015-03-02
2015-03-02
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.13
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Levels Calculations of 29S, 30S and 31S Isotopes
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.12
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Sulfur isotopes 29S – 31S are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state of excitation energy evaluated by OXBASH code together with energy levels and also probable places for nucleons placements in each energy level. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Sulfur isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Sulfur isotopes 29S – 31S are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state of excitation energy evaluated by OXBASH code together with energy levels and also probable places for nucleons placements in each energy level. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Sulfur isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Energy Levels Calculations of 29S, 30S and 31S Isotopes
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-02
© Science Publishing Group
Saeed Mohammadi
Sara Sirjani
Energy Levels Calculations of 29S, 30S and 31S Isotopes
4
3
9
9
2015-03-02
2015-03-02
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.12
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Levels Calculations of 26Al and 29Al Isotopes
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.11
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Aluminum isotopes 28Al and 29Al are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state of excitation energy evaluated by OXBASH code together with energy levels and also probable places for nucleons placements in each energy level. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Aluminum isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Aluminum isotopes 28Al and 29Al are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state of excitation energy evaluated by OXBASH code together with energy levels and also probable places for nucleons placements in each energy level. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Aluminum isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Energy Levels Calculations of 26Al and 29Al Isotopes
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-02
© Science Publishing Group
Saeed Mohammadi
Hassan Rostam Nezhad
Energy Levels Calculations of 26Al and 29Al Isotopes
4
3
4
4
2015-03-02
2015-03-02
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.11
© Science Publishing Group
Calculation of the Energy Levels of Phosphorus Isotopes (A=31 to 35) by Using OXBASH Code
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.14
Phosphorus (P) has 23 isotopes from 24P to 46P, only one of these isotopes, 31Pis stable; such as this element is considered as a monoisotopic element. The longest-lived radioactive isotopes are 33P with a half-life of 25.34 days and the least stable is 25P with a half-life shorter than 30ns. Almost all of them are high energy beta-emitters which have valuable applications in medicine, industry, and tracer studies. Calculations of energy level properties of the Phosphor isotopic chain with A = 31 (N=15) to 35 (N=20) calculated through shell model calculations using the shell model code OXBASH for Windows. A compilation of sd-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian has been published around 1988.A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data and USD energies to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Phosphor nuclei. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Phosphorus (P) has 23 isotopes from 24P to 46P, only one of these isotopes, 31Pis stable; such as this element is considered as a monoisotopic element. The longest-lived radioactive isotopes are 33P with a half-life of 25.34 days and the least stable is 25P with a half-life shorter than 30ns. Almost all of them are high energy beta-emitters which have valuable applications in medicine, industry, and tracer studies. Calculations of energy level properties of the Phosphor isotopic chain with A = 31 (N=15) to 35 (N=20) calculated through shell model calculations using the shell model code OXBASH for Windows. A compilation of sd-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian has been published around 1988.A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data and USD energies to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Phosphor nuclei. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Calculation of the Energy Levels of Phosphorus Isotopes (A=31 to 35) by Using OXBASH Code
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-09
© Science Publishing Group
S. Mohammadi
F. Bakhshabadi
Calculation of the Energy Levels of Phosphorus Isotopes (A=31 to 35) by Using OXBASH Code
4
3
22
22
2015-03-09
2015-03-09
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.14
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Levels Calculations of 20Ne and 21Ne Isotopes
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.18
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Neon isotopes 20Ne and 21Ne are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state of excitation energy evaluated by OXBASH code together with energy levels and also probable places for nucleons’ placements in each energy level. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Neon isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Neon isotopes 20Ne and 21Ne are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state of excitation energy evaluated by OXBASH code together with energy levels and also probable places for nucleons’ placements in each energy level. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Neon isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Energy Levels Calculations of 20Ne and 21Ne Isotopes
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.18
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-10
© Science Publishing Group
Saeed Mohammadi
Maryam Mounesi
Energy Levels Calculations of 20Ne and 21Ne Isotopes
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39
2015-03-10
2015-03-10
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.18
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.18
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Levels Calculations of 22-23Na and 24-26Mg Isotopes Using Shell Model Code OXBASH
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.16
In this paper, the energy levels of Na and Mg isotopes have been calculated. Calculations were carried out in the SD model space with 13 different potentials using the shell model code OXBASH by applying spin-parity of valance nucleons. OXBASH is a computing code for carrying out calculation of nuclear structure based on shell model. We compared calculated energy levels with experimental results and find the best energy and potential for each isotope.
In this paper, the energy levels of Na and Mg isotopes have been calculated. Calculations were carried out in the SD model space with 13 different potentials using the shell model code OXBASH by applying spin-parity of valance nucleons. OXBASH is a computing code for carrying out calculation of nuclear structure based on shell model. We compared calculated energy levels with experimental results and find the best energy and potential for each isotope.
Energy Levels Calculations of 22-23Na and 24-26Mg Isotopes Using Shell Model Code OXBASH
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-10
© Science Publishing Group
S. Mohammadi
S. Arbab
E. Tavakoli
Energy Levels Calculations of 22-23Na and 24-26Mg Isotopes Using Shell Model Code OXBASH
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31
31
2015-03-10
2015-03-10
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.16
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Levels Calculations of 36-37-38Ar Isotopes Using Shell Model Code OXBASH
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.15
Energy levels of three Argon isotopes with mass numbers 36, 37 and 38 are calculated. Calculations were carried out in the SD model space with 13 different potentials using the shell model code OXBASH by applying spin-parity of valance nucleons. OXBASH is a computing code for carrying out calculation of nuclear structure based on shell model. We compared calculated energy levels with experimental results and find the best energy and potential for each isotope.
Energy levels of three Argon isotopes with mass numbers 36, 37 and 38 are calculated. Calculations were carried out in the SD model space with 13 different potentials using the shell model code OXBASH by applying spin-parity of valance nucleons. OXBASH is a computing code for carrying out calculation of nuclear structure based on shell model. We compared calculated energy levels with experimental results and find the best energy and potential for each isotope.
Energy Levels Calculations of 36-37-38Ar Isotopes Using Shell Model Code OXBASH
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-10
© Science Publishing Group
S. Mohammadi
S. Hesami Rostami
A. Rashed Mohasel
M. Ghamary
Energy Levels Calculations of 36-37-38Ar Isotopes Using Shell Model Code OXBASH
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26
26
2015-03-10
2015-03-10
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.15
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Levels Calculations of 28,30Si and 26,28Al Isotopes Using Shell Model Code OXBASH
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.17
In this paper, the energy levels of Na and Al isotopes have been calculated. Calculations were carried out in the SD model space with 13 different potentials using the shell model code OXBASH by applying spin-parity of valance nucleons. OXBASH is a computing code for carrying out calculation of nuclear structure based on shell model. We compared calculated energy levels with experimental results and find the best energy and potential for each isotope.
In this paper, the energy levels of Na and Al isotopes have been calculated. Calculations were carried out in the SD model space with 13 different potentials using the shell model code OXBASH by applying spin-parity of valance nucleons. OXBASH is a computing code for carrying out calculation of nuclear structure based on shell model. We compared calculated energy levels with experimental results and find the best energy and potential for each isotope.
Energy Levels Calculations of 28,30Si and 26,28Al Isotopes Using Shell Model Code OXBASH
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.17
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-03-10
© Science Publishing Group
S. Mohammadi
A. Heydarzade
V. Ragheb
Energy Levels Calculations of 28,30Si and 26,28Al Isotopes Using Shell Model Code OXBASH
4
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35
35
2015-03-10
2015-03-10
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.17
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.17
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Levels Calculations of 30Si and 31Si Isotopes Using OXBASH Code
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.19
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Silicon isotopes 30Si and 31Si are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state and excitation energies together with number of nucleons in each energy level are calculated by OXBASH code. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Silicon isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Silicon isotopes 30Si and 31Si are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state and excitation energies together with number of nucleons in each energy level are calculated by OXBASH code. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Silicon isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Energy Levels Calculations of 30Si and 31Si Isotopes Using OXBASH Code
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.19
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-05-16
© Science Publishing Group
Saeed Mohammadi
Fateme Salimi
Energy Levels Calculations of 30Si and 31Si Isotopes Using OXBASH Code
4
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43
43
2015-05-16
2015-05-16
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.19
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.19
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Levels Calculations of 24Mg and 25Mg Isotopes using OXBASH Code
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.20
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Magnesium isotopes 24Mg and 25Mg are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state of excitation energy evaluated by OXBASH code together with energy levels and also probable places for nucleons’ placements in each energy level. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Magnesium isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
In this article by using OXBASH shell model code the energy levels of Magnesium isotopes 24Mg and 25Mg are calculated. This code which is based on one of the most applicable nuclear models, deals with evaluating energy levels. Applying the program for each isotope using the defined codes, introduces several files which each file contains a set of data. Meanwhile, the ground state of excitation energy evaluated by OXBASH code together with energy levels and also probable places for nucleons’ placements in each energy level. Programs will be reliable only when results meet experimental procedures. A compilation of SD-shell energy levels calculated with the USD Hamiltonian and has been published around 1988. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in Magnesium isotopes. The calculated energy spectrum is in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Energy Levels Calculations of 24Mg and 25Mg Isotopes using OXBASH Code
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.20
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-05-16
© Science Publishing Group
Saeed Mohammadi
Zohreh Firozi
Energy Levels Calculations of 24Mg and 25Mg Isotopes using OXBASH Code
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47
47
2015-05-16
2015-05-16
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.20
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.20
© Science Publishing Group
Simulation of Radiation Spectra of Planar Channelled Electrons in Thick Silicon Crystals
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.21
Dechanneling processes for electrons based on the solution of Fokker-Planck equation have been studied. The dynamics of particle distribution density in depth of Crystal has been investigated in dependence on both energy and initial scattering distribution of electron beams. The influence of dechanneling process on spectral intensity of channeling radiation for electrons in crystals is investigated.
Dechanneling processes for electrons based on the solution of Fokker-Planck equation have been studied. The dynamics of particle distribution density in depth of Crystal has been investigated in dependence on both energy and initial scattering distribution of electron beams. The influence of dechanneling process on spectral intensity of channeling radiation for electrons in crystals is investigated.
Simulation of Radiation Spectra of Planar Channelled Electrons in Thick Silicon Crystals
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.21
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-05-16
© Science Publishing Group
Hamid Shafeghat
Alireza Abbasnia
Saeed Mohammadi
Simulation of Radiation Spectra of Planar Channelled Electrons in Thick Silicon Crystals
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52
52
2015-05-16
2015-05-16
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.21
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040301.21
© Science Publishing Group
Energy Levels of Weak Coupling Magneto-Optical Polaron and Temperature Effect in Spherical Quantum Dot
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.12
In this paper, we investigate the influence of the magnetic field and the temperature on the ground state energy of a weak coupling polaron in a spherical semiconductor quantum dot (QD) using the modified LLP method. The ground state energy of a weak coupling magneto-optical polaron is split into sub-energy levels and there is the degeneracy of the energy levels. It is also seen that the split energies are increasing functions of the electron-phonon coupling constant and decreasing functions of the magnetic field while the temperature is an increasing function of the cyclotron frequency for very low values of the longitudinal confinement length.
In this paper, we investigate the influence of the magnetic field and the temperature on the ground state energy of a weak coupling polaron in a spherical semiconductor quantum dot (QD) using the modified LLP method. The ground state energy of a weak coupling magneto-optical polaron is split into sub-energy levels and there is the degeneracy of the energy levels. It is also seen that the split energies are increasing functions of the electron-phonon coupling constant and decreasing functions of the magnetic field while the temperature is an increasing function of the cyclotron frequency for very low values of the longitudinal confinement length.
Energy Levels of Weak Coupling Magneto-Optical Polaron and Temperature Effect in Spherical Quantum Dot
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-06-12
© Science Publishing Group
Nsangou Issofa
Alain Jerve Fotue
Sadem Christian Kenfack
Maurice Tiotsop
Michel Pascal Tabue Djemmo
Amos Veyongni Wirngo
Hilaire Fotsin
Lukong Cornelius Fai
Energy Levels of Weak Coupling Magneto-Optical Polaron and Temperature Effect in Spherical Quantum Dot
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164
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2015-06-12
2015-06-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.12
© Science Publishing Group
Studies on the Shielding Properties of Transparent Glasses Prepared from Rice Husk Silica
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.11
The glasses studied here have been prepared by the melt quenching technique from Egyptian rice husk silica.The obtained solid glasses exhibit amorphous nature and transparency. These glasses were selected to obey the following composition, (75-x) mol % RH silica. 25mol % Na2O. x mol % Bi2O3, where x takes the values, 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20. It was found that, as Bi2O3 was gradually increased both the density and molar volume values increased. The comparison between the experimental and empirical density and molar volume values confirm that all the studied glasses are in amorphous glassy phase. Moreover, all samples showed also good shielding properties against gamma ray radiation and neutrons. The mass attenuation coefficient of gamma ray radiation increased gradually as Bi2O3 was gradually increased while the HVL values exhibit gradual decrease, and the sample that contains 20 mol % Bi2O3 appeared the efficient one at low gamma ray energy (especially at 356 KeV). On the other hand "for shielding neutrons" the sample that contains 5 mol% Bi2O3 appeared the best one since it exhibits the highest neutron removal cross section.
The glasses studied here have been prepared by the melt quenching technique from Egyptian rice husk silica.The obtained solid glasses exhibit amorphous nature and transparency. These glasses were selected to obey the following composition, (75-x) mol % RH silica. 25mol % Na2O. x mol % Bi2O3, where x takes the values, 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20. It was found that, as Bi2O3 was gradually increased both the density and molar volume values increased. The comparison between the experimental and empirical density and molar volume values confirm that all the studied glasses are in amorphous glassy phase. Moreover, all samples showed also good shielding properties against gamma ray radiation and neutrons. The mass attenuation coefficient of gamma ray radiation increased gradually as Bi2O3 was gradually increased while the HVL values exhibit gradual decrease, and the sample that contains 20 mol % Bi2O3 appeared the efficient one at low gamma ray energy (especially at 356 KeV). On the other hand "for shielding neutrons" the sample that contains 5 mol% Bi2O3 appeared the best one since it exhibits the highest neutron removal cross section.
Studies on the Shielding Properties of Transparent Glasses Prepared from Rice Husk Silica
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-06-10
© Science Publishing Group
A. G. Mostafa
H. A. Saudi
M. Y. Hassaan
S. M. Salem
S. S. Mohammad
Studies on the Shielding Properties of Transparent Glasses Prepared from Rice Husk Silica
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157
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2015-06-10
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.11
© Science Publishing Group
Breaking of Charge Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.18
Deuteron photo-decay with subsequent proton detection represents an experiment similar to Bohm’s version of the EPR arrangement replacing the entangled spin singlet state of the two-fermion system by entangled isospin states. Dropping the conception of truth, the detection as charge symmetry breaking event a posteriori leads up to a pre-existing proton identifying the second possibly far apart nucleon as neutron. That explains what the entangled isospin state predicts without assumption of a superluminal correlation.
Deuteron photo-decay with subsequent proton detection represents an experiment similar to Bohm’s version of the EPR arrangement replacing the entangled spin singlet state of the two-fermion system by entangled isospin states. Dropping the conception of truth, the detection as charge symmetry breaking event a posteriori leads up to a pre-existing proton identifying the second possibly far apart nucleon as neutron. That explains what the entangled isospin state predicts without assumption of a superluminal correlation.
Breaking of Charge Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.18
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-07-15
© Science Publishing Group
Klaus Lewin
Breaking of Charge Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics
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216
2015-07-15
2015-07-15
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.18
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.18
© Science Publishing Group
The Development of a Possible Prâna ( Vital Living Force i.e. Indian Concept of Life Energies) Model Through the Consciousness Model
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.13
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (ε_T ) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same ε_T. The same ε_T is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Any matter as well as any individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo and these TCP and TRP are originated from the same Void. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo play significant roles in understanding what is called ‘Prâna’, the Indian concept of ‘life energies’. ‘Prâna’ is also called the universal power. The consciousness model involving the TCP, TRP and TF (thought force) may provide guidelines to develop a ‘Prâna’ model.
A single field emerged at the origin of the universe, already containing within itself the blueprint of the physical universe. The primordial single field triggered the onset of the universe. Most physicists believe that a single super-force dominated the first instants of creation. Scientists have arrived at a simple but decisive conclusion that consciousness is very much a part of the universe, like other objects. Our consciousness model involving thought-carrying particle (TCP), thought retaining particle (TRP) and thought force (TF) signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. This universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). This UM is evolved at the Big Bang from void. The UM is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF). Thought force (TF) is an expression of universal consciousness. The Thought force (TF) being the primordial quantum field functions as the original super-force. TF being the original super-force functions as the origin of all the fundamental fields. TCP is the carrier of thought force (TF) that, in turn, appears to be the origin of all the fields. The quantized energy (ε_T ) of TCP is responsible to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The individual consciousness owes its origin to the universal consciousness created by the same ε_T. The same ε_T is the energy responsible for generating thought force (TF). TF being an expression of the universal consciousness is applicable to any inanimate object as well as to any biological system (having thinking ability). The TF exerts its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Any matter as well as any individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP in the inherent presence of thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo and these TCP and TRP are originated from the same Void. These TCP, TRP and the thought force (TF) in vitro and thought force (TF) in vivo play significant roles in understanding what is called ‘Prâna’, the Indian concept of ‘life energies’. ‘Prâna’ is also called the universal power. The consciousness model involving the TCP, TRP and TF (thought force) may provide guidelines to develop a ‘Prâna’ model.
The Development of a Possible Prâna ( Vital Living Force i.e. Indian Concept of Life Energies) Model Through the Consciousness Model
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-06-25
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
The Development of a Possible Prâna ( Vital Living Force i.e. Indian Concept of Life Energies) Model Through the Consciousness Model
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179
2015-06-25
2015-06-25
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.13
© Science Publishing Group
The Astrophysical Phenomenon of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Proves the Existence of the Hidden Multiverse
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.14
A hypothesis of the hidden Multiverse is suggested. The Multiverse is referred to as hidden, since all parallel universes forming it are invisible to the inhabitants of other parallel universes, except for their own. The nature of mutual invisibility of parallel Universes is explained. It is argued that the structure of the Multiverse proposed herein explains the dark matter /dark energy phenomena, which, in turn, confirm the existence of the hidden Multiverse. The validity of the suggested hypothesis is verified by the data obtained by the WMAP and Planck spacecraft. The hypothesis can also be supported by investigation of portals found on the planet Earth and by people visiting trans-portal areas.
A hypothesis of the hidden Multiverse is suggested. The Multiverse is referred to as hidden, since all parallel universes forming it are invisible to the inhabitants of other parallel universes, except for their own. The nature of mutual invisibility of parallel Universes is explained. It is argued that the structure of the Multiverse proposed herein explains the dark matter /dark energy phenomena, which, in turn, confirm the existence of the hidden Multiverse. The validity of the suggested hypothesis is verified by the data obtained by the WMAP and Planck spacecraft. The hypothesis can also be supported by investigation of portals found on the planet Earth and by people visiting trans-portal areas.
The Astrophysical Phenomenon of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Proves the Existence of the Hidden Multiverse
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-06-25
© Science Publishing Group
Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov
The Astrophysical Phenomenon of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Proves the Existence of the Hidden Multiverse
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188
2015-06-25
2015-06-25
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.14
© Science Publishing Group
Subatomic Particle Structures and Unified Field Theory Based on Yangton and Yington Hypothetical Theory
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.15
A hypothetical theory of a Yangton and Yington circulating pair with an inter-attractive “Force of Creation” is proposed as the “Origin of Creation”. When this circulating pair travels in the space it is known as “Photon”. Otherwise, at still, it is known as “Wu’s Particles” also as “Still Photon”, which makes the basic building block of all matters. The structures of Quarks, Neutrinos, Higgs Boson particles, Electron, Positron, Proton, Neutron, and Dark Matters are proposed based on “Wu’s Particles”. Also, it is assumed that “Force of Creation” is the only fundamental force in the universe that could create and unify the Four Basic Forces. Gravitation is formed by the attractive force between two Higgs Boson particles with String Structures that are made of “Wu’s Particles” of the same circulation direction. Electromagnetism is however generated between two atoms both with single outer layer Electron that are attractive to each other while spinning in the same direction and repulsive in the opposite directions. Both the Weak Force between Neutron and Positron as well as the Strong Force between two Neutrons also between Proton and Neutron are proposed and interpreted based on “Wu’s Particles” and “Force of Creation”.
A hypothetical theory of a Yangton and Yington circulating pair with an inter-attractive “Force of Creation” is proposed as the “Origin of Creation”. When this circulating pair travels in the space it is known as “Photon”. Otherwise, at still, it is known as “Wu’s Particles” also as “Still Photon”, which makes the basic building block of all matters. The structures of Quarks, Neutrinos, Higgs Boson particles, Electron, Positron, Proton, Neutron, and Dark Matters are proposed based on “Wu’s Particles”. Also, it is assumed that “Force of Creation” is the only fundamental force in the universe that could create and unify the Four Basic Forces. Gravitation is formed by the attractive force between two Higgs Boson particles with String Structures that are made of “Wu’s Particles” of the same circulation direction. Electromagnetism is however generated between two atoms both with single outer layer Electron that are attractive to each other while spinning in the same direction and repulsive in the opposite directions. Both the Weak Force between Neutron and Positron as well as the Strong Force between two Neutrons also between Proton and Neutron are proposed and interpreted based on “Wu’s Particles” and “Force of Creation”.
Subatomic Particle Structures and Unified Field Theory Based on Yangton and Yington Hypothetical Theory
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-06-30
© Science Publishing Group
Edward T. H. Wu
Subatomic Particle Structures and Unified Field Theory Based on Yangton and Yington Hypothetical Theory
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2015-06-30
2015-06-30
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.15
© Science Publishing Group
The Group Theory as an Algebraic Approach for Prediction of Some Nuclear Structure Characteristics
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.16
An algebraic model depends upon the group theory emphasizes the coherent behavior of all of the nucleons. Among the kinds of collective motion that can occur in nuclei are rotations or vibrations that involve the entire nucleus. In this respect, the nuclear properties can be analyzed using the same description that is used to analyze the properties of a charged drop of liquid suspended in space. The algebraic collective model can thus be viewed as an extension of the liquid drop model, the algebraic collective model provides a good starting point for nuclear structure and then one could understand fission. For that purpose I have discussed and calculated some characteristics as the energy per particle, charge distribution, energy spectra for nuclei. Also, the collective potential-energy as a function of the internuclear distance and the potential as a function of the control parameter could be explained successfully as well.
An algebraic model depends upon the group theory emphasizes the coherent behavior of all of the nucleons. Among the kinds of collective motion that can occur in nuclei are rotations or vibrations that involve the entire nucleus. In this respect, the nuclear properties can be analyzed using the same description that is used to analyze the properties of a charged drop of liquid suspended in space. The algebraic collective model can thus be viewed as an extension of the liquid drop model, the algebraic collective model provides a good starting point for nuclear structure and then one could understand fission. For that purpose I have discussed and calculated some characteristics as the energy per particle, charge distribution, energy spectra for nuclei. Also, the collective potential-energy as a function of the internuclear distance and the potential as a function of the control parameter could be explained successfully as well.
The Group Theory as an Algebraic Approach for Prediction of Some Nuclear Structure Characteristics
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-07-07
© Science Publishing Group
A. Abdel-Hafiez
The Group Theory as an Algebraic Approach for Prediction of Some Nuclear Structure Characteristics
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2015-07-07
2015-07-07
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.16
© Science Publishing Group
Origin of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.17
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle states that there is a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle (complementary variables) can be measured simultaneously. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle has indubitable support, but the origin behind this principle is unexplained. If complementary variables of particles are considered as complex numbers—for example, in calculating particle position, a complex vector coordinate space is necessary instead of the Cartesian space—then the origin of lower limit of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle emerges.
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle states that there is a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle (complementary variables) can be measured simultaneously. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle has indubitable support, but the origin behind this principle is unexplained. If complementary variables of particles are considered as complex numbers—for example, in calculating particle position, a complex vector coordinate space is necessary instead of the Cartesian space—then the origin of lower limit of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle emerges.
Origin of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.17
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-07-08
© Science Publishing Group
Bhushan Bhoja Poojary
Origin of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
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211
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2015-07-08
2015-07-08
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.17
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150404.17
© Science Publishing Group
Limit of Low Temperatures, Freeze Decay, Dissipation of Matter, Harvest of Cold Energy
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.11
Background: The gas laws assert that at “absolute zero” or 0 K, the gaseousness of the gases ends. Experimentally, gases become liquid or solid at 0 K. However, (i) 0 K is not the lowest limit of temperature; and (ii) at 0 K, the value of entropy is not zero. Activity continues at 0 K. There is (a) “Zero-point” energy; (b) the principle of “indeterminacy” holds; (c) 0 K is not the lower limit of “critical points” of the fluids and solids phases; (d) the structures of atoms comport in “clusters”; (e) electronic energy “mismatch” in superconductivity; and other phenomena stand against zero entropy at 0K. Purpose: Dissipation of matter means dissipation of energy. It may be possible to harvest the dissipating energy at below 0 K temperature for the use of human beings. Method: A number of statistical equations anchor at zero entropy at 0K. This anchor is arbitrary. At 0 K, gas stays as liquid, solid or plasma. Argumentatively, much below that temperature there is liquid–limit–temperature (LLT) where all liquids become solids or plasma. Below LLT, there is solid–limit-temperature (SLT) where freeze decay of matter sets in. At SLT, the articles and sub-particles constituting an atom dance away in to space. Result: Matter exists in the range between very cold temperature and very hot temperature. When matter dissipates then energy disperses with the dissipating matter. Conclusion: Laboratories need to reach the SLT temperature empirically and find means to harvest the dissipating energy.
Background: The gas laws assert that at “absolute zero” or 0 K, the gaseousness of the gases ends. Experimentally, gases become liquid or solid at 0 K. However, (i) 0 K is not the lowest limit of temperature; and (ii) at 0 K, the value of entropy is not zero. Activity continues at 0 K. There is (a) “Zero-point” energy; (b) the principle of “indeterminacy” holds; (c) 0 K is not the lower limit of “critical points” of the fluids and solids phases; (d) the structures of atoms comport in “clusters”; (e) electronic energy “mismatch” in superconductivity; and other phenomena stand against zero entropy at 0K. Purpose: Dissipation of matter means dissipation of energy. It may be possible to harvest the dissipating energy at below 0 K temperature for the use of human beings. Method: A number of statistical equations anchor at zero entropy at 0K. This anchor is arbitrary. At 0 K, gas stays as liquid, solid or plasma. Argumentatively, much below that temperature there is liquid–limit–temperature (LLT) where all liquids become solids or plasma. Below LLT, there is solid–limit-temperature (SLT) where freeze decay of matter sets in. At SLT, the articles and sub-particles constituting an atom dance away in to space. Result: Matter exists in the range between very cold temperature and very hot temperature. When matter dissipates then energy disperses with the dissipating matter. Conclusion: Laboratories need to reach the SLT temperature empirically and find means to harvest the dissipating energy.
Limit of Low Temperatures, Freeze Decay, Dissipation of Matter, Harvest of Cold Energy
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-07-31
© Science Publishing Group
Jitendra Kumar Barthakur
Limit of Low Temperatures, Freeze Decay, Dissipation of Matter, Harvest of Cold Energy
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220
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2015-07-31
2015-07-31
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.11
© Science Publishing Group
Quantum Mechanics in Space and Time
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.12
The possibility that quantum mechanics is foundationally the same as classical theories in explaining phenomena in space and time is postulated. Such a view is motivated by interpreting the experimental violation of Bell inequalities as resulting from questions of geometry and algebraic representation of variables, and thereby the structure of space, rather than realism or locality. While time remains Euclidean in the proposed new structure, space is described by Projective geometry. A dual geometry facilitates description of a physically real quantum particle trajectory. Implications for the physical basis of Bohmian mechanics is briefly examined, and found that the hidden variables pilot-wave model is local. Conceptually, the consequence of this proposal is that quantum mechanics has common ground with relativity as ultimately geometrical. This permits the derivation of physically meaningful quantum Lorentz transformations. Departure from classical notions of measurability is discussed.
The possibility that quantum mechanics is foundationally the same as classical theories in explaining phenomena in space and time is postulated. Such a view is motivated by interpreting the experimental violation of Bell inequalities as resulting from questions of geometry and algebraic representation of variables, and thereby the structure of space, rather than realism or locality. While time remains Euclidean in the proposed new structure, space is described by Projective geometry. A dual geometry facilitates description of a physically real quantum particle trajectory. Implications for the physical basis of Bohmian mechanics is briefly examined, and found that the hidden variables pilot-wave model is local. Conceptually, the consequence of this proposal is that quantum mechanics has common ground with relativity as ultimately geometrical. This permits the derivation of physically meaningful quantum Lorentz transformations. Departure from classical notions of measurability is discussed.
Quantum Mechanics in Space and Time
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-31
© Science Publishing Group
Fosco Ruzzene
Quantum Mechanics in Space and Time
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2015-08-31
2015-08-31
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.12
© Science Publishing Group
Characterization of Neutron Field in a Spherical Irradiation Facility
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.13
A small-sized dual-hemisphere irradiation facility designed and constructed for using Am-Be isotopic neutron source to study and characterize the neutron field around sample irradiation position for obtaining maximum thermal neutron flux. The foil activation method based on 115In and 197Au was used for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. For field characterization, several combinations of moderation media have been tested (air, sand and water) aiming at the identification of the best combinational setups for sample irradiations using thermal neutrons. To account for epithermal contribution, reaction rates and flux calculations were corrected using tabulated values of Westcott g-factors and resonance integrals for these media. The optimal position for sample irradiation using thermal neutron for both water-water and water-sand setups, inside the irradiation channel, was found at about 6.9 to 10.9 cm from the center of the neutron source.
A small-sized dual-hemisphere irradiation facility designed and constructed for using Am-Be isotopic neutron source to study and characterize the neutron field around sample irradiation position for obtaining maximum thermal neutron flux. The foil activation method based on 115In and 197Au was used for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. For field characterization, several combinations of moderation media have been tested (air, sand and water) aiming at the identification of the best combinational setups for sample irradiations using thermal neutrons. To account for epithermal contribution, reaction rates and flux calculations were corrected using tabulated values of Westcott g-factors and resonance integrals for these media. The optimal position for sample irradiation using thermal neutron for both water-water and water-sand setups, inside the irradiation channel, was found at about 6.9 to 10.9 cm from the center of the neutron source.
Characterization of Neutron Field in a Spherical Irradiation Facility
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-31
© Science Publishing Group
M. Tohamy
M. Fayez-Hassan
S. Abd El-Ghany
S. M. El-Minyawi
M. M. Abd El-Khalik
M. N. H. Comsan
Characterization of Neutron Field in a Spherical Irradiation Facility
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2015-08-31
2015-08-31
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.13
© Science Publishing Group
Interpretation of the Exact Intrinsic Meaning of Hibernation Through the Consciousness Model
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.14
The hibernation and the ‘Vital Living Force’ (<sup>~</sup><sub style="margin-left:-6px;">=</sub> Prâna) that, in turn, is responsible for maintaining the "life function" can be explained through the developed consciousness model involving thought-carrying particles (TCP), thought retaining particles (TRP) and thought force (T<sub>F</sub>). Our consciousness model signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. The universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). The thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) is an expression of the universal consciousness. The quantized energy (ε<sup>T</sup>) of the TCP is found to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The UM as well as the individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP. It has already been expressed that TCP and TRP are the ultimate constituents of any matter as well as the mind, a constituent of the universal mind (UM) in the inherent presence of thought force (T<sub>F</sub>). The thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) being the primary field is the origin of all the existing fields. This TF is the primordial quantum field that exerts its functions both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. The same (ε<sup>T</sup>) is equally responsible to create and control the individual consciousness through the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP in the presence of the thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) <i>in vitro</i> and thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) <i>in vivo</i>. It is shown here that the hibernation and the ‘Vital Living Force’ (<sup>~</sup><sub style="margin-left:-6px;">=</sub> Prâna) can be explained through the TCP, TRP and thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) <i>in vivo</i> and thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) <i>in vivo</i>.
The hibernation and the ‘Vital Living Force’ (<sup>~</sup><sub style="margin-left:-6px;">=</sub> Prâna) that, in turn, is responsible for maintaining the "life function" can be explained through the developed consciousness model involving thought-carrying particles (TCP), thought retaining particles (TRP) and thought force (T<sub>F</sub>). Our consciousness model signifies the existence of universal consciousness that exists along with the universe. The universal consciousness is a functional state of the universal mind (UM). The thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) is an expression of the universal consciousness. The quantized energy (ε<sup>T</sup>) of the TCP is found to cause the universal consciousness as well as the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature. The UM as well as the individual mind is constituted by these TCP and TRP. It has already been expressed that TCP and TRP are the ultimate constituents of any matter as well as the mind, a constituent of the universal mind (UM) in the inherent presence of thought force (T<sub>F</sub>). The thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) being the primary field is the origin of all the existing fields. This TF is the primordial quantum field that exerts its functions both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. The same (ε<sup>T</sup>) is equally responsible to create and control the individual consciousness through the quantum mechanical activities of these TCP and TRP in the presence of the thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) <i>in vitro</i> and thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) <i>in vivo</i>. It is shown here that the hibernation and the ‘Vital Living Force’ (<sup>~</sup><sub style="margin-left:-6px;">=</sub> Prâna) can be explained through the TCP, TRP and thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) <i>in vivo</i> and thought force (T<sub>F</sub>) <i>in vivo</i>.
Interpretation of the Exact Intrinsic Meaning of Hibernation Through the Consciousness Model
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-09-09
© Science Publishing Group
Dhananjay Pal
Interpretation of the Exact Intrinsic Meaning of Hibernation Through the Consciousness Model
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2015-09-09
2015-09-09
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.14
© Science Publishing Group
Gravitational Propulsion by Help of Vacuum Holes
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.15
A new concept, the gravitational propulsion, or "Hole Levitation", is proposed which propels vehicle by using the artificial gravity (vacuum holes). Such gravitational propulsion is similar to gravitational slingshot but without the need for large masses like planets and complicate maneuvers. The source of artificial gravitation accelerates the vehicle in one direction and the surrounding medium in the opposite direction. Therefore, it is not a reactionless drive: momentum is taken from the surrounding stars and planets and conferred on the vehicle and thus is conserved overall. The artificial gravity generator can damp or neutralize inertial forces due to the levitating vehicle is able to move with large acceleration, which is not acceptable for other means of transport.
A new concept, the gravitational propulsion, or "Hole Levitation", is proposed which propels vehicle by using the artificial gravity (vacuum holes). Such gravitational propulsion is similar to gravitational slingshot but without the need for large masses like planets and complicate maneuvers. The source of artificial gravitation accelerates the vehicle in one direction and the surrounding medium in the opposite direction. Therefore, it is not a reactionless drive: momentum is taken from the surrounding stars and planets and conferred on the vehicle and thus is conserved overall. The artificial gravity generator can damp or neutralize inertial forces due to the levitating vehicle is able to move with large acceleration, which is not acceptable for other means of transport.
Gravitational Propulsion by Help of Vacuum Holes
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-09-14
© Science Publishing Group
Constantin Leshan
Gravitational Propulsion by Help of Vacuum Holes
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2015-09-14
2015-09-14
10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.20150405.15
© Science Publishing Group
Santilli’s Isoprime Theory
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.12
We study Santilli’s isomathematics for the generalization of modern mathematics via the isomultiplication a× ̂a=abT ̂ and isodivision a÷ ̂b=a/b I ̂, where the new multiplicative unit I ̂≠1 is called Santilli isounit, T ̂I ̂=1, and T ̂ is the inverse of the isounit, while keeping unchanged addition and subtraction, , In this paper, we introduce the isoaddition a+ ̂b=a+b+0 ̂ and the isosubtraction a- ̂b=a-b-0 ̂ where the additive unit 0 ̂≠0 is called isozero, and we study Santilli isomathem,atics formulated with the four isooperations (+ ̂,- ̂,× ̂,÷ ̂). We introduce, apparently for the first time, Santilli’s isoprime theory of the first kind and Santilli’s isoprime theory of the second kind. We also provide an example to illustrate the novel isoprime isonumbers
We study Santilli’s isomathematics for the generalization of modern mathematics via the isomultiplication a× ̂a=abT ̂ and isodivision a÷ ̂b=a/b I ̂, where the new multiplicative unit I ̂≠1 is called Santilli isounit, T ̂I ̂=1, and T ̂ is the inverse of the isounit, while keeping unchanged addition and subtraction, , In this paper, we introduce the isoaddition a+ ̂b=a+b+0 ̂ and the isosubtraction a- ̂b=a-b-0 ̂ where the additive unit 0 ̂≠0 is called isozero, and we study Santilli isomathem,atics formulated with the four isooperations (+ ̂,- ̂,× ̂,÷ ̂). We introduce, apparently for the first time, Santilli’s isoprime theory of the first kind and Santilli’s isoprime theory of the second kind. We also provide an example to illustrate the novel isoprime isonumbers
Santilli’s Isoprime Theory
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-12
© Science Publishing Group
Chun-Xuan Jiang
Santilli’s Isoprime Theory
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5
23
23
2015-08-12
2015-08-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.12
© Science Publishing Group
Measurable Iso-Functions
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.13
In this article are given definitions definition for measurable is-functions of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth kind. They are given examples when the original function is not measurable and the corresponding iso-function is measurable and the inverse. They are given conditions for the isotopic element under which the corresponding is-functions are measurable. It is introduced a definition for equivalent iso-functions. They are given examples when the iso-functions are equivalent and the corresponding real functions are not equivalent. They are deducted some criterions for measurability of the iso-functions of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth kind. They are investigated for measurability the addition, multiplication of two iso-functions, multiplication of iso-function with an iso-number and the powers of measurable iso-functions. They are given definitions for step iso-functions, iso-step iso-functions, characteristic iso-functions, iso-characteristic iso-functions. It is investigate for measurability the limit function of sequence of measurable iso-functions. As application they are formulated the iso-Lebesgue’s theorems for iso-functions of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth kind. These iso-Lebesgue’s theorems give some information for the structure of the iso-functions of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth kind
In this article are given definitions definition for measurable is-functions of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth kind. They are given examples when the original function is not measurable and the corresponding iso-function is measurable and the inverse. They are given conditions for the isotopic element under which the corresponding is-functions are measurable. It is introduced a definition for equivalent iso-functions. They are given examples when the iso-functions are equivalent and the corresponding real functions are not equivalent. They are deducted some criterions for measurability of the iso-functions of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth kind. They are investigated for measurability the addition, multiplication of two iso-functions, multiplication of iso-function with an iso-number and the powers of measurable iso-functions. They are given definitions for step iso-functions, iso-step iso-functions, characteristic iso-functions, iso-characteristic iso-functions. It is investigate for measurability the limit function of sequence of measurable iso-functions. As application they are formulated the iso-Lebesgue’s theorems for iso-functions of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth kind. These iso-Lebesgue’s theorems give some information for the structure of the iso-functions of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth kind
Measurable Iso-Functions
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-12
© Science Publishing Group
Svetlin G. Georgiev
Measurable Iso-Functions
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2015-08-12
2015-08-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.13
© Science Publishing Group
Santilli Isomathematics for Generalizing Modern Mathematics
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.14
The establishment of isomathematics, as proposed by R. M. Santilli thirty years ago in the USA, and contributed to by Jiang Chun-Xuan in China during the past 12 years, is significant and has changed modern mathematics. At present, the primary teaching of mathematics is based on the simple operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; a middle level teaching ofmathematics takes these four operations to a higher level, while the university teaching of mathematics extends them to an even higher level. These four arithmetic operations form the foundation of modern mathematics. Santilli isomathematics is a generalisation of these four fundamental operations and heralds a great revolution in mathematics. HIn this paper, we study the four generalized arithmetic operations of isoaddition, isosubtraction, isomultiplication and isodivision at the primary level of isomathematics. The material introduced here should be readily understandable by middle school pupils and university students.Santilli’s isomathematics [1] ßßis based on a generalisation of modern mathematics. Isomultiplication is defined by a× ̂a=abT ̂, isodivision by a÷ ̂b=a/b I ̂, where I ̂≠1 is called an isounit; T ̂I ̂=1, where T ̂ is the inverse of the isounit. If addition and subtraction remain unchanged, (+ ̂,- ̂,× ̂,÷ ̂)are the four arithmetic operations in Santilli’s isomathematics[1-5]. Isoaddition a+ ̂b=a+b+0 ̂ and isosubtraction a+ ̂b=a+b+0 ̂, where 0 ̂≠0 is called the isozero, together with the operations of isomultiplication and isodivision introduced above, form the four arithmetic operations(+ ̂,- ̂,× ̂,÷ ̂) in Santilli-Jiang isomathematics[6]. Santilli [1] suggests isomathematics based on a generalisation of multiplication ×, division ÷, and the multiplicative unit 1 of modern mathematics. It is an epoch making suggestion. From modern mathematics, the foundations of Santilli’s isomathematics will be established
The establishment of isomathematics, as proposed by R. M. Santilli thirty years ago in the USA, and contributed to by Jiang Chun-Xuan in China during the past 12 years, is significant and has changed modern mathematics. At present, the primary teaching of mathematics is based on the simple operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; a middle level teaching ofmathematics takes these four operations to a higher level, while the university teaching of mathematics extends them to an even higher level. These four arithmetic operations form the foundation of modern mathematics. Santilli isomathematics is a generalisation of these four fundamental operations and heralds a great revolution in mathematics. HIn this paper, we study the four generalized arithmetic operations of isoaddition, isosubtraction, isomultiplication and isodivision at the primary level of isomathematics. The material introduced here should be readily understandable by middle school pupils and university students.Santilli’s isomathematics [1] ßßis based on a generalisation of modern mathematics. Isomultiplication is defined by a× ̂a=abT ̂, isodivision by a÷ ̂b=a/b I ̂, where I ̂≠1 is called an isounit; T ̂I ̂=1, where T ̂ is the inverse of the isounit. If addition and subtraction remain unchanged, (+ ̂,- ̂,× ̂,÷ ̂)are the four arithmetic operations in Santilli’s isomathematics[1-5]. Isoaddition a+ ̂b=a+b+0 ̂ and isosubtraction a+ ̂b=a+b+0 ̂, where 0 ̂≠0 is called the isozero, together with the operations of isomultiplication and isodivision introduced above, form the four arithmetic operations(+ ̂,- ̂,× ̂,÷ ̂) in Santilli-Jiang isomathematics[6]. Santilli [1] suggests isomathematics based on a generalisation of multiplication ×, division ÷, and the multiplicative unit 1 of modern mathematics. It is an epoch making suggestion. From modern mathematics, the foundations of Santilli’s isomathematics will be established
Santilli Isomathematics for Generalizing Modern Mathematics
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.14
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-12
© Science Publishing Group
Chun-Xuan Jiang
Santilli Isomathematics for Generalizing Modern Mathematics
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37
2015-08-12
2015-08-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.14
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.14
© Science Publishing Group
Hypermathematics, Hv-Structures, Hypernumbers, Hypermatrices and Lie-Santilli Addmissibility
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.15
We present the largest class of hyperstructures called H<sub>v</sub>-structures. In Hv-groups and H<sub>v</sub>-rings, the fundamental relations are defined and they connect the algebraic hyperstructure theory with the classical one. Using the fundamental relations, the H<sub>v</sub>-fields are defined and their elements are called hypernumbers or Hv-numbers. H<sub>v</sub>-matrices are defined to be matrices with entries from an H<sub>v</sub>-field. We present the related theory and results on hypermatrices and on the Lie-Santilli admissibility
We present the largest class of hyperstructures called H<sub>v</sub>-structures. In Hv-groups and H<sub>v</sub>-rings, the fundamental relations are defined and they connect the algebraic hyperstructure theory with the classical one. Using the fundamental relations, the H<sub>v</sub>-fields are defined and their elements are called hypernumbers or Hv-numbers. H<sub>v</sub>-matrices are defined to be matrices with entries from an H<sub>v</sub>-field. We present the related theory and results on hypermatrices and on the Lie-Santilli admissibility
Hypermathematics, Hv-Structures, Hypernumbers, Hypermatrices and Lie-Santilli Addmissibility
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.15
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-12
© Science Publishing Group
Thomas Vougiouklis
Hypermathematics, Hv-Structures, Hypernumbers, Hypermatrices and Lie-Santilli Addmissibility
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2015-08-12
2015-08-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.15
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.15
© Science Publishing Group
Santilli Autotopisms of Partial Groups
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.16
This paper deals with those partial groups that contain a given Santilli isotopism in their autotopism group. A classification of these autotopisms is explicitly determined for partial groups of order n ≤ 4.
This paper deals with those partial groups that contain a given Santilli isotopism in their autotopism group. A classification of these autotopisms is explicitly determined for partial groups of order n ≤ 4.
Santilli Autotopisms of Partial Groups
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.16
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-12
© Science Publishing Group
Raúl M. Falcón
Juan Núñez
Santilli Autotopisms of Partial Groups
4
5
51
51
2015-08-12
2015-08-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.16
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.16
© Science Publishing Group
Hyper-Representations by Non Square Matrices Helix-Hopes
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.17
Hyperstructure theory can overcome restrictions which ordinary algebraic structures have. A hyperproduct on non-square ordinary matrices can be defined by using the so called helix-hyperoperations. We define and study the helix-hyperstructures on the representations and we extend our study up to Lie-Santilli theory by using ordinary fields. Therefore the related theory can be faced by defining the hyperproduct on the extended set of non square matrices. The obtained hyperstructure is an Hv-algebra or an Hv-Lie-alebra
Hyperstructure theory can overcome restrictions which ordinary algebraic structures have. A hyperproduct on non-square ordinary matrices can be defined by using the so called helix-hyperoperations. We define and study the helix-hyperstructures on the representations and we extend our study up to Lie-Santilli theory by using ordinary fields. Therefore the related theory can be faced by defining the hyperproduct on the extended set of non square matrices. The obtained hyperstructure is an Hv-algebra or an Hv-Lie-alebra
Hyper-Representations by Non Square Matrices Helix-Hopes
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.17
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-12
© Science Publishing Group
T. Vougiouklis
S. Vougiouklis
Hyper-Representations by Non Square Matrices Helix-Hopes
4
5
58
58
2015-08-12
2015-08-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.17
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.17
© Science Publishing Group
Rudiments of IsoGravitation for Matter and its IsoDual for AntiMatter
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.18
In this paper, we hope to initiate due scientific process on some of the historical criticisms of Einstein gravitation expressed by Einstein himself as well as by others. These criticisms have remained widely ignored for one century and deal with issues such as: the apparent lack of actual, physical curvature of space due to the refraction of star-light within the Sun chromosphere; the absence of a source in the field equations due to the electromagnetic origin (rather than the charge) of gravitational masses; the lack of clear compatibility of general relativity with special relativity, interior gravitational problems, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and grand unifications; the lack of preservation over time of numerical predictions inherent in the notion of covariance; and other basic issues. We show that a resolution of these historical doubts can be apparently achieved via the use of the novel isomathematics and related iso-Minkowskian geometry based on the embedding of gravitation in generalized isounits, with isodual images for antimatter. Thanks to half a century of prior research, we then show that the resulting new theory of gravitation, known as isogravitation, preserves indeed Einstein's historical field equations although formulated on the iso-Minkowskian geometry over isofields whose primary feature is to have null isocurvature. We then show that isogravitation allows: Einstein field equations to achieve a unified treatment of generally inhomogeneous and anisotropic, exterior and interior gravitational problems; the achievement of a clear compatibility with 20th century sciences; the achievement of time invariant numerical predictions thanks to the strict invariance (rather than covariance) of gravitation under the Lorentz-Santilli isosymmetry; the apparent achievement of a consistent representation of the gravitational field of antimatter thanks ti the isodual iso-Minkowskian geometry; the apparent achievement of a grand unification inclusive of electroweak and gravitational interactions for matter and antimatter without known causality or structural inconsistencies; and other advances. We then present, apparently for the first time, the isogravitational isoaxioms characterized by the infinite family of isotopies of special relativity axioms as uniquely characterized by the Lorentz-Santilli isosymmetry which are applicable to both exterior and interior isogravitational problems of matter with their isodual for antimatter. We finally show, also for the first time, the apparent compatibility of isogravitation with current knowledge on the equivalence principle, matter black holes and other gravitational data.
In this paper, we hope to initiate due scientific process on some of the historical criticisms of Einstein gravitation expressed by Einstein himself as well as by others. These criticisms have remained widely ignored for one century and deal with issues such as: the apparent lack of actual, physical curvature of space due to the refraction of star-light within the Sun chromosphere; the absence of a source in the field equations due to the electromagnetic origin (rather than the charge) of gravitational masses; the lack of clear compatibility of general relativity with special relativity, interior gravitational problems, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and grand unifications; the lack of preservation over time of numerical predictions inherent in the notion of covariance; and other basic issues. We show that a resolution of these historical doubts can be apparently achieved via the use of the novel isomathematics and related iso-Minkowskian geometry based on the embedding of gravitation in generalized isounits, with isodual images for antimatter. Thanks to half a century of prior research, we then show that the resulting new theory of gravitation, known as isogravitation, preserves indeed Einstein's historical field equations although formulated on the iso-Minkowskian geometry over isofields whose primary feature is to have null isocurvature. We then show that isogravitation allows: Einstein field equations to achieve a unified treatment of generally inhomogeneous and anisotropic, exterior and interior gravitational problems; the achievement of a clear compatibility with 20th century sciences; the achievement of time invariant numerical predictions thanks to the strict invariance (rather than covariance) of gravitation under the Lorentz-Santilli isosymmetry; the apparent achievement of a consistent representation of the gravitational field of antimatter thanks ti the isodual iso-Minkowskian geometry; the apparent achievement of a grand unification inclusive of electroweak and gravitational interactions for matter and antimatter without known causality or structural inconsistencies; and other advances. We then present, apparently for the first time, the isogravitational isoaxioms characterized by the infinite family of isotopies of special relativity axioms as uniquely characterized by the Lorentz-Santilli isosymmetry which are applicable to both exterior and interior isogravitational problems of matter with their isodual for antimatter. We finally show, also for the first time, the apparent compatibility of isogravitation with current knowledge on the equivalence principle, matter black holes and other gravitational data.
Rudiments of IsoGravitation for Matter and its IsoDual for AntiMatter
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.18
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-12
© Science Publishing Group
Ruggero Maria Santilli
Rudiments of IsoGravitation for Matter and its IsoDual for AntiMatter
4
5
75
75
2015-08-12
2015-08-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.18
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.18
© Science Publishing Group
Outline of Hadronic Mathematics, Mechanics and Chemistry as Conceived by R. M. Santilli
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.11
In this paper, we outline the various branches of hadronic mathematics and their applications to corresponding branches of hadronic mechanics and chemistry as conceived by the Italian-American scientist Ruggero Maria Santilli. According to said conception, hadronic mathematics comprises the following branches for the treatment of matter in conditions of increasing complexity: 1) 20th century mathematics based on Lie’s theory; 2) IsoMathematics based on Santilli’s isotopies of Lie’s theory; 3) GenoMathematics based on Santilli’s formulation of Albert’s Lie-admissibility; 4) HyperMathematics based on a multi-valued realization of genomathematics with classical operations; and 5) HyperMathematics based on Vougiouklis Hv hyperstructures expressed in terms of hyperoperations. Additionally, hadronic mathematics comprises the anti-Hermitean images (called isoduals) of the five preceding mathematics for the description of antimatter also in conditions of increasing complexity. The outline presented in this paper includes the identification of represented physical or chemical systems, the main mathematical structure, and the main dynamical equations per each branch. We also show the axiomatic consistency of various branches of hadronic mathematics as sequential coverings of 20th century mathematics; and indicate a number of open mathematical problems. Novel physical and chemical applications permitted by hadronic mathematics are presented in subsequent collections.
In this paper, we outline the various branches of hadronic mathematics and their applications to corresponding branches of hadronic mechanics and chemistry as conceived by the Italian-American scientist Ruggero Maria Santilli. According to said conception, hadronic mathematics comprises the following branches for the treatment of matter in conditions of increasing complexity: 1) 20th century mathematics based on Lie’s theory; 2) IsoMathematics based on Santilli’s isotopies of Lie’s theory; 3) GenoMathematics based on Santilli’s formulation of Albert’s Lie-admissibility; 4) HyperMathematics based on a multi-valued realization of genomathematics with classical operations; and 5) HyperMathematics based on Vougiouklis Hv hyperstructures expressed in terms of hyperoperations. Additionally, hadronic mathematics comprises the anti-Hermitean images (called isoduals) of the five preceding mathematics for the description of antimatter also in conditions of increasing complexity. The outline presented in this paper includes the identification of represented physical or chemical systems, the main mathematical structure, and the main dynamical equations per each branch. We also show the axiomatic consistency of various branches of hadronic mathematics as sequential coverings of 20th century mathematics; and indicate a number of open mathematical problems. Novel physical and chemical applications permitted by hadronic mathematics are presented in subsequent collections.
Outline of Hadronic Mathematics, Mechanics and Chemistry as Conceived by R. M. Santilli
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-12
© Science Publishing Group
Richard Anderson
Outline of Hadronic Mathematics, Mechanics and Chemistry as Conceived by R. M. Santilli
4
5
16
16
2015-08-12
2015-08-12
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.11
© Science Publishing Group
Comments on the Regular and Irregular IsoRepresentations of the Lie-Santilli IsoAlgebras
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.19
As it is well known, 20th century applied mathematics with related physical and chemical theories, are solely applicable to point-like particles moving in vacuum under Hamiltonian interactions (exterior dynamical problems). In this note, we study the covering of 20th century mathematics discovered by R. M. Santilli, today known as Santilli isomathematics, representing particles as being extended, non-spherical and deformable while moving within a physical medium under Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian interactions (interior dynamical problems). In particular, we focus the attention on a central part of isomathematics given by the isorepresentations of the Lie-Santilli isoalgebras that have been classified into regular (irregular) isorepresentations depending on whether the structure quantities of the isocommutation rules are constants (functions of local variables). The importance of the study of the isorepresentation theory for a number of physical and chemical applications is pointed out
As it is well known, 20th century applied mathematics with related physical and chemical theories, are solely applicable to point-like particles moving in vacuum under Hamiltonian interactions (exterior dynamical problems). In this note, we study the covering of 20th century mathematics discovered by R. M. Santilli, today known as Santilli isomathematics, representing particles as being extended, non-spherical and deformable while moving within a physical medium under Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian interactions (interior dynamical problems). In particular, we focus the attention on a central part of isomathematics given by the isorepresentations of the Lie-Santilli isoalgebras that have been classified into regular (irregular) isorepresentations depending on whether the structure quantities of the isocommutation rules are constants (functions of local variables). The importance of the study of the isorepresentation theory for a number of physical and chemical applications is pointed out
Comments on the Regular and Irregular IsoRepresentations of the Lie-Santilli IsoAlgebras
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.19
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-08-22
© Science Publishing Group
Richard Anderson
Comments on the Regular and Irregular IsoRepresentations of the Lie-Santilli IsoAlgebras
4
5
82
82
2015-08-22
2015-08-22
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.19
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2015040501.19
© Science Publishing Group
All Elementary Bosons are Gauge
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.11
All concepts and laws of the Standard Model without Higgs and laws of Newtonian gravity derived from the properties of dot events probability. The Dirac type equation with additional gauge fields, the invariant under electroweak transformation fermions masses, W and Z bosons with dynamic masses are obtained from such probability properties. Newton's law of gravity, the phenomenon of confinement and asymptotic freedom is also a consequence of these properties.
All concepts and laws of the Standard Model without Higgs and laws of Newtonian gravity derived from the properties of dot events probability. The Dirac type equation with additional gauge fields, the invariant under electroweak transformation fermions masses, W and Z bosons with dynamic masses are obtained from such probability properties. Newton's law of gravity, the phenomenon of confinement and asymptotic freedom is also a consequence of these properties.
All Elementary Bosons are Gauge
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.11
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-06-30
© Science Publishing Group
Gunn Quznetsov
All Elementary Bosons are Gauge
5
1
7
7
2015-06-30
2015-06-30
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.11
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.11
© Science Publishing Group
The Causes of Gravity and the Strong Force
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.12
The physical causes of gravity and the related strong force are developed quantitatively with major improvements in the “pushing gravity” concepts of Le Sage and others. Large particles and objects are shown able to coast through a gas of subatomic particles without loss of velocity or energy. The strong force declines with the 4th power of distance, and the strong force of a small particle on a large one is greater than the strong force of the large one on the small one, making small particles very suitable for retaining nuclear components.
The physical causes of gravity and the related strong force are developed quantitatively with major improvements in the “pushing gravity” concepts of Le Sage and others. Large particles and objects are shown able to coast through a gas of subatomic particles without loss of velocity or energy. The strong force declines with the 4th power of distance, and the strong force of a small particle on a large one is greater than the strong force of the large one on the small one, making small particles very suitable for retaining nuclear components.
The Causes of Gravity and the Strong Force
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.12
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-06-30
© Science Publishing Group
Albert C. McDowell
The Causes of Gravity and the Strong Force
5
1
17
17
2015-06-30
2015-06-30
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.12
© Science Publishing Group
Inherent Contradictions in Higgs Boson Theory
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.13
The analysis relies on several general principles such as the Variational Principle and the broader sense of Bohr's Correspondence Principle. These principles together with other elements of theoretical physics provide a set of restrictions by which every quantum theory must abide. The paper proves that the Higgs boson theory contains many contradictions that undermine its physical validity. It is also explained why the 125 GeV particle H0 which was recently found at CERN cannot be a Higgs boson.
The analysis relies on several general principles such as the Variational Principle and the broader sense of Bohr's Correspondence Principle. These principles together with other elements of theoretical physics provide a set of restrictions by which every quantum theory must abide. The paper proves that the Higgs boson theory contains many contradictions that undermine its physical validity. It is also explained why the 125 GeV particle H0 which was recently found at CERN cannot be a Higgs boson.
Inherent Contradictions in Higgs Boson Theory
doi:10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.13
American Journal of Modern Physics
2015-07-23
© Science Publishing Group
Eliyahu Comay
Inherent Contradictions in Higgs Boson Theory
5
1
22
22
2015-07-23
2015-07-23
10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.13
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=122&doi=10.11648/j.ajmp.s.2016050101.13
© Science Publishing Group